ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 19, issue 3 September - December 2013   Creative Commons License

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     Vol. 19, issue 3 September - December 2013  

 
  

Mexico: factors explaining fruit and vegetable production under free trade

México: factores explicativos de la producción de frutas y hortalizas ante la apertura comercial

Daniela Cruz-Delgado; Juan Antonio Leos-Rodríguez; J. Reyes Altamirano-Cárdenas

Keywords: Yield, area, structure, cropping pattern, foreign trade.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.05.029

Received: 31-05-2012
Accepted: 04-10-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:267-278

The cropping pattern in Mexico has evolved due to the characteristics of agriculture and weather conditions that largely determine annual production volumes, which are directly affected by changes in harvested area and yield. Trends in consumption patterns and product prices are also determining factors when farmers decide what crops to plant. Agricultural production responds to the demand resulting from the country’s trade openness, heightened by the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994. The main objective of this research was: to quantify the factors behind the growth in fruit and vegetable production in Mexico during the period 1994 to 2009, through the effects of area, yield, land-use structure and their combined effect. FAO methodology was used FAO (1994). The increase in harvested area explains 100 % of the growth in fruit production, and yield explains 72.6 % of the growth in vegetable production. Mexico is the main supplier of these products to the United States but it is losing market share in this market even though the total value of its fruit and vegetable exports has grown significantly.

The cropping pattern in Mexico has evolved due to the characteristics of agriculture and weather conditions that largely determine annual production volumes, which are directly affected by changes in harvested area and yield. Trends in consumption patterns and product prices are also determining factors when farmers decide what crops to plant. Agricultural production responds to the demand resulting from the country’s trade openness, heightened by the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994. The main objective of this research was: to quantify the factors behind the growth in fruit and vegetable production in Mexico during the period 1994 to 2009, through the effects of area, yield, land-use structure and their combined effect. FAO methodology was used FAO (1994). The increase in harvested area explains 100 % of the growth in fruit production, and yield explains 72.6 % of the growth in vegetable production. Mexico is the main supplier of these products to the United States but it is losing market share in this market even though the total value of its fruit and vegetable exports has grown significantly.

 

Organic fertilization: an alternative to produce piquín pepperunder protected conditions

Fertilización orgánica: una alternativa para la producción de chile piquín bajo condiciones protegidas

César Márquez-Quiroz; Sayani Teresa López-Espinosa; Pedro Cano-Ríos; Alejandro Moreno-Resendez

Keywords: Capsicum annuum var. aviculare, greenhouse, vermicompost, vermicompost tea.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.12.072

Received: 28-12-2012
Accepted: 15-08-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:279-286

We conducted an experiment to evaluate the vermicompost tea (VCT) as organic fertilizer in combination with mixtures of sand, compost (C) and vermicompost (VC) in piquín pepper production grown under greenhouse conditions. During 2011-2012, plants of piquín pepper ecotype chilpaya were subjected to five fertilization treatments: sand + inorganic nutrient solution (control, F1); sand + VCT (F2); sand + C (1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F3); sand + VC (1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F4) and, sand + C + VC (2:1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F5). Plants grown with control treatment (F1) had the highest yield, exceeding with 26.10, 9.00, 29.47 and 29.05 % the obtained yield in plants grown under F2, F3, F4 and F5 treatments respectively. With respect to the organic treatments, F3 treatment had the highest yield followed by F2 treatment. This study suggests that the VCT in combination with sand: C mixture, or just sand, was considered as an alternative for organic piquín pepper under greenhouse conditions.

We conducted an experiment to evaluate the vermicompost tea (VCT) as organic fertilizer in combination with mixtures of sand, compost (C) and vermicompost (VC) in piquín pepper production grown under greenhouse conditions. During 2011-2012, plants of piquín pepper ecotype chilpaya were subjected to five fertilization treatments: sand + inorganic nutrient solution (control, F1); sand + VCT (F2); sand + C (1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F3); sand + VC (1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F4) and, sand + C + VC (2:1:1 ratio; v/v) + VCT (F5). Plants grown with control treatment (F1) had the highest yield, exceeding with 26.10, 9.00, 29.47 and 29.05 % the obtained yield in plants grown under F2, F3, F4 and F5 treatments respectively. With respect to the organic treatments, F3 treatment had the highest yield followed by F2 treatment. This study suggests that the VCT in combination with sand: C mixture, or just sand, was considered as an alternative for organic piquín pepper under greenhouse conditions.

 

Changes in post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) under refrigeration

Cambios de calidad en poscosecha de menta (Mentha x piperita L.) almacenada en refrigeración

Oscar Cruz-Álvarez; Ma. Teresa Martínez-Damián; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez; Sweetia Paulina Ramírez-Ramírez

Keywords: Storage, respiration rate, chlorophyll content, hedonic scale

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.11.062

Received: 09-11-2012
Accepted: 11-10-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:287-299

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of low temperatures on the postharvest physiology of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.). Its behavior while stored at two temperatures (6 and 10 °C) compared to a control at room temperature (20 ±2 °C) was studied. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 replications was used. Respiration rate (RR), ethylene production (EP), weight loss (WL), total chlorophyll (TC), carotenoids (C) and titratable acidity (TA) were determined. A hedonic evaluation was performed (external appearance, color scale, yellowing, the development of bad odors, leaf abscission and rots). Results show that the refrigeration treatments (6 and 10 °C) maintained RR and EP with values of between 2.57 and 6.65 mL CO2.kg-1.h-1 and 0.04 and 0.27 μL C2H4.kg-1.h-1, respectively. WL decreased by 50 % and TC and C were preserved. Cooling enabled maintaining RR and EP without significant changes. Additionally,reduced changes were observed in WL, TC, C, TA and external quality traits required for marketing peppermint.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of low temperatures on the postharvest physiology of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.). Its behavior while stored at two temperatures (6 and 10 °C) compared to a control at room temperature (20 ±2 °C) was studied. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 replications was used. Respiration rate (RR), ethylene production (EP), weight loss (WL), total chlorophyll (TC), carotenoids (C) and titratable acidity (TA) were determined. A hedonic evaluation was performed (external appearance, color scale, yellowing, the development of bad odors, leaf abscission and rots). Results show that the refrigeration treatments (6 and 10 °C) maintained RR and EP with values of between 2.57 and 6.65 mL CO2.kg-1.h-1 and 0.04 and 0.27 μL C2H4.kg-1.h-1, respectively. WL decreased by 50 % and TC and C were preserved. Cooling enabled maintaining RR and EP without significant changes. Additionally,reduced changes were observed in WL, TC, C, TA and external quality traits required for marketing peppermint.

 

Behavior of advanced lines of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to phytopathogens at Chapingo, Mexico

Comportamiento de líneas avanzadas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) a fitopatógenos en Chapingo, México

Santos Gerardo Leyva-Mir; Carlos Manuel González-Solano; Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez; Domingo Montalvo-Hernández

Keywords: Resistance, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Fusarium oxysporum, Nacobbus spp., Meloidogyne spp.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.12.070

Received: 07-12-2012
Accepted: 31-08-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:301-313

A test was conducted at the experimental field of Universad Autónoma Chapingo using the randomized complete block design with four replications, in order to assess the response of 18 experimental lines and two commercial genotypes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) of tomato against natural infection of pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Fusarium oxysporum, Nacobbus spp. and Meloidogyne spp.) of economic importance. We evaluated the severity degree of five pathogens on plants of the genotypes considered. Before evaluation, each pathogen was identified in the laboratory by morphology of their reproductive structures. The Friedman nonparametric test was applied to the data obtained, and then multiple ranges were compared. Sources of resistance were found for Alternaria solani with end severity of 35 % compared to the susceptible genotype of 80 %. Phytophthora infestans end severity reached 60 %, while the susceptibility was 100 %. Fusarium oxysporum had a value of 10 % of damage against susceptible with 40 %. Tolerance with records of 30 % galling and 76 % in susceptible lines were determined with respect to nematodes (Nacobbus spp. and Meloidogyne spp.).

A test was conducted at the experimental field of Universad Autónoma Chapingo using the randomized complete block design with four replications, in order to assess the response of 18 experimental lines and two commercial genotypes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) of tomato against natural infection of pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Fusarium oxysporum, Nacobbus spp. and Meloidogyne spp.) of economic importance. We evaluated the severity degree of five pathogens on plants of the genotypes considered. Before evaluation, each pathogen was identified in the laboratory by morphology of their reproductive structures. The Friedman nonparametric test was applied to the data obtained, and then multiple ranges were compared. Sources of resistance were found for Alternaria solani with end severity of 35 % compared to the susceptible genotype of 80 %. Phytophthora infestans end severity reached 60 %, while the susceptibility was 100 %. Fusarium oxysporum had a value of 10 % of damage against susceptible with 40 %. Tolerance with records of 30 % galling and 76 % in susceptible lines were determined with respect to nematodes (Nacobbus spp. and Meloidogyne spp.).

 

Evaluation of antifungal activity of chitosan in Alternaria alternata and in the quality of “tommy atkins” mango during storage

Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica del quitosano en Alternaria alternata y en la calidad del mango ‘tommy atkins’ durante el almacenamiento

Laura Ibeth López-Mora; Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez; Silvia Bautista-Baños; Luis Felipe Jiménez-García; H. A. Zavaleta-Mancera

Keywords: Mangifera indica L.; mango black spot, natural compound.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.07.038

Received: 12-07-2012
Accepted: 11-10-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:315-331

The objectives of this investigation were a) to determine the best concentration of chitosan to reduce Alternaria alternata development in relation to mycelial growth, germination and sporulation, b) to observe through scanning and electron microscopy the effect of chitosan level at the morphological and cellular level and c) to evaluate the efficiency of this compound to control A. alternata in mango cv. ‘Tommy Atkins’ fruits and its effect on fruit ripening during storage.Results demonstrated that the most effective concentration of chitosan was 1.0 %, because it reduced mycelial growth and sporulation by as much as 70 % and completely inhibited the germination of its conidia. In the scan and transmission micrographs an intense and ample vacuolization is observed along the mycelia and conidia, leakage of cytoplasmic material and presence of fibrilar material. There was no fungicidal effect of the chitosan when it was applied directly to mango fruits, although it reduced the extension of the disease by more than 50 %. Ripening of treated fruit was very similar to that of the control treatment.

The objectives of this investigation were a) to determine the best concentration of chitosan to reduce Alternaria alternata development in relation to mycelial growth, germination and sporulation, b) to observe through scanning and electron microscopy the effect of chitosan level at the morphological and cellular level and c) to evaluate the efficiency of this compound to control A. alternata in mango cv. ‘Tommy Atkins’ fruits and its effect on fruit ripening during storage.Results demonstrated that the most effective concentration of chitosan was 1.0 %, because it reduced mycelial growth and sporulation by as much as 70 % and completely inhibited the germination of its conidia. In the scan and transmission micrographs an intense and ample vacuolization is observed along the mycelia and conidia, leakage of cytoplasmic material and presence of fibrilar material. There was no fungicidal effect of the chitosan when it was applied directly to mango fruits, although it reduced the extension of the disease by more than 50 %. Ripening of treated fruit was very similar to that of the control treatment.

 

Yield, nutritional quality and profitability of green beans of rainfed in San Pablo Ixayoc, Mexico

Rendimiento, calidad nutrimental y rentabilidad del frijol ejotero de temporal en San Pablo Ixayoc, México

Nicolás Salinas-Ramírez; José Alberto Salvador Escalante-Estrada; Ma. Teresa Rodríguez-González; Eliseo Sosa-Montes

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, ‘Opus’, ‘Strike’, ‘Black Valentine’, ‘Hav-14’.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2010.08.031

Received: 26-10-2010
Accepted: 11-10-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:333-342

One strategy to increase the yield and nutritional quality in agricultural regions is the search for cultivars with better adaptation to different environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize green beans cultivars based on their phenology, growth, yield, nutritional quality and profitability, in temperate climate and rainfall conditions. Three varieties of determinate growth habit ‘Opus’, ‘Strike’ and ‘Black Valentine’ and ‘Hav-14’ of indeterminate growth were planted on May 7, 2008 in San Pablo Ixayoc Mexico, at a density of 6.25 plants·m-2. We found differences in terms of life cycle from 90-119 days to the last cut, as well as in yield and number of green beans. These differences were related to a greater degree with accumulated rainfall (PP, r = 0.83**), total crop evapotranspiration (ETc, r = 0.71*) and accumulated thermal units (TU, r = 0.65*). The variety ‘Opus’ showed the highest percentage of minerals, phosphorus, ADF, lignin, NDF and protein. The highest net income was for ‘Opus’ and ‘Black Valentine’. However, in a period of five years (half-life of the trellis) ‘Hav-14’ promises more advantage from the economic point of view. These results suggest that ‘Hav-14’, ‘Opus’ and ‘Black Valentine’ would be the most appropriate cultivars for greater production under rainfall conditions in temperate climate in San Pablo Ixayoc.

One strategy to increase the yield and nutritional quality in agricultural regions is the search for cultivars with better adaptation to different environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize green beans cultivars based on their phenology, growth, yield, nutritional quality and profitability, in temperate climate and rainfall conditions. Three varieties of determinate growth habit ‘Opus’, ‘Strike’ and ‘Black Valentine’ and ‘Hav-14’ of indeterminate growth were planted on May 7, 2008 in San Pablo Ixayoc Mexico, at a density of 6.25 plants·m-2. We found differences in terms of life cycle from 90-119 days to the last cut, as well as in yield and number of green beans. These differences were related to a greater degree with accumulated rainfall (PP, r = 0.83**), total crop evapotranspiration (ETc, r = 0.71*) and accumulated thermal units (TU, r = 0.65*). The variety ‘Opus’ showed the highest percentage of minerals, phosphorus, ADF, lignin, NDF and protein. The highest net income was for ‘Opus’ and ‘Black Valentine’. However, in a period of five years (half-life of the trellis) ‘Hav-14’ promises more advantage from the economic point of view. These results suggest that ‘Hav-14’, ‘Opus’ and ‘Black Valentine’ would be the most appropriate cultivars for greater production under rainfall conditions in temperate climate in San Pablo Ixayoc.

 

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the production of african violet in a traditional management system

Hongos micorrícico-arbusculares en la producción de violeta africana en un sistema de manejo tradicional

Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez; Dora Trejo-Aguilar; Liliana Lara-Capistrán

Keywords: Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl., commercial nursery, microbial inoculation, ornamental floricultural species.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.11.064

Received: 15-11-2012
Accepted: 11-10-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:343-353

The effect of inoculating African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a commercial nursery under the producer’s farming system was determined. Two forms of the inoculum, fresh roots (TI) and inoculant encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (EI), were tested. The treatments consisted of plants inoculated with each inoculum (TI and EI), fertilized plants without inoculum (F), inoculated plants with fertilizer (TI+F and EI+F) and control plants (C). Variables evaluated at 90 and 180 days after inoculation (DAI) were leaf area, number of leaves, flower buds and flowers, root length colonized and petiole, leaf and root dry weight at the end of the experiment (180 DAI). Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences among treatments at 90 DAI for leaf area and number of flower buds and flowers (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.01), a response which continued until 180 DAI with respect to the control plants (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.01). In general, the interaction between AM fungi and the fertilizer promoted early flowering, indicating that the use of these microorganisms can be considered a feasible alternative biotechnology to incorporate into these production systems.

The effect of inoculating African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a commercial nursery under the producer’s farming system was determined. Two forms of the inoculum, fresh roots (TI) and inoculant encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (EI), were tested. The treatments consisted of plants inoculated with each inoculum (TI and EI), fertilized plants without inoculum (F), inoculated plants with fertilizer (TI+F and EI+F) and control plants (C). Variables evaluated at 90 and 180 days after inoculation (DAI) were leaf area, number of leaves, flower buds and flowers, root length colonized and petiole, leaf and root dry weight at the end of the experiment (180 DAI). Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences among treatments at 90 DAI for leaf area and number of flower buds and flowers (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.01), a response which continued until 180 DAI with respect to the control plants (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.01). In general, the interaction between AM fungi and the fertilizer promoted early flowering, indicating that the use of these microorganisms can be considered a feasible alternative biotechnology to incorporate into these production systems.

 

Total factor productivity in mexican agriculture and horticulture: 1991-2005

Productividad total de los factores en la agricultura y horticultura mexicana: 1991-2005

Miguel Ángel Martínez-Damián; Ma. Teresa Martínez-Damián

Keywords: Törnqvist Index, superlative index, growth rate.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.08.043

Received: 27-09-2012
Accepted: 23-09-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:355-366

The aim of this research was to measure total factor productivity (TFP) and analyze its behavior under the hypothesis that it shows an increasing trend. Among the methods used to measure TFP in the agricultural sector, chained quantity indexes stand out; the one used here was the Törnqvist-Theil index. TFP behavior was measured in order to determine Mexican agriculture and horticulture productivity behavior in the period 1990-2005. The results allow concluding that TFP did not grow, since there was positive TFP growth for only six out of the fourteen years studied. One explanation for this behavior is based on the fact that agricultural product prices have grown less than input prices. In particular, the ratio of agricultural product price indexes to factor price indexes favors agriculture and horticulture in only four of the fourteen years considered.

The aim of this research was to measure total factor productivity (TFP) and analyze its behavior under the hypothesis that it shows an increasing trend. Among the methods used to measure TFP in the agricultural sector, chained quantity indexes stand out; the one used here was the Törnqvist-Theil index. TFP behavior was measured in order to determine Mexican agriculture and horticulture productivity behavior in the period 1990-2005. The results allow concluding that TFP did not grow, since there was positive TFP growth for only six out of the fourteen years studied. One explanation for this behavior is based on the fact that agricultural product prices have grown less than input prices. In particular, the ratio of agricultural product price indexes to factor price indexes favors agriculture and horticulture in only four of the fourteen years considered.

 

Vernacular nomenclature, use and management of Opuntia spp. in Santiago Bayacora, Durango, Mexico

Nomenclatura vernácula, uso y manejo de Opuntia spp. en Santiago Bayacora, Durango, México

Inocencia Ávalos-Huerta; Diana Libertad Sánchez-López; Celia López-González

Keywords: Wild prickly pear cactus, ethnobotany, cluster analysis, perception, knowledge, traditional knowledge.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2012.09.048

Received: 30-09-2012
Accepted: 09-05-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:367-380

We documented traditional knowledge on nomenclature and vernacular classification, location of plants, use, and management of wild  prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) at three localities of Santiago Bayacora in Durango, Mexico. A total of 10 persons were interviewed using the “snowball” technique. The information obtained was analyzed using frequency histograms and cluster analysis. Local residents identified the nine species of Opuntia known from the area, as well as two more, not previously recorded. Their classification coincided with the Linnaean classification for eight of nine species. The cluster analysis showed that the most important diagnostic characters were associated with use (size, color and flavor of the fruit; and number of thorns on the cladodes). Opuntia is used mainly as food (cladode and fruit) for local consumption, or sold in local markets. Currently no management strategies exist in the area, and little is done to conserve the resource.

We documented traditional knowledge on nomenclature and vernacular classification, location of plants, use, and management of wild  prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) at three localities of Santiago Bayacora in Durango, Mexico. A total of 10 persons were interviewed using the “snowball” technique. The information obtained was analyzed using frequency histograms and cluster analysis. Local residents identified the nine species of Opuntia known from the area, as well as two more, not previously recorded. Their classification coincided with the Linnaean classification for eight of nine species. The cluster analysis showed that the most important diagnostic characters were associated with use (size, color and flavor of the fruit; and number of thorns on the cladodes). Opuntia is used mainly as food (cladode and fruit) for local consumption, or sold in local markets. Currently no management strategies exist in the area, and little is done to conserve the resource.

 

Growth and vitality of Populus alba L. with topping and treated with paclobutrazol

Crecimiento y vitalidad de Populus alba L. con desmoche y tratado con paclobutrazol

Tomás Martínez-Trinidad; Francisca O. Plascencia-Escalante; Víctor M. Cetina-Alcalá

Keywords: Tree topping, carbohydrates, plant growth regulator.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2013.05.016

Received: 15-05-2013
Accepted: 11-11-2013
Available online: 2013-12-15
Pages:381-388

White poplar (Populus alba L.) is an ornamental tree used in urban environments. We evaluated the effect of 0.4 and 0.8 g of paclobutrazol (PBZ) per plant on the growth and vitality of white poplar trees that were severely pruned. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications. The application of PBZ significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected trunk growth, leaf growth and the total/reducing sugars ratio. However, the effect was lost in the next growth period. Thus, the overall effect is null in improving the vitality of this species, since the chlorophyll fluorescence values (Fv/Fm) were diminished after the treatment. Further research is suggested in order to improve the understanding of PBZ effect on white poplar.

White poplar (Populus alba L.) is an ornamental tree used in urban environments. We evaluated the effect of 0.4 and 0.8 g of paclobutrazol (PBZ) per plant on the growth and vitality of white poplar trees that were severely pruned. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications. The application of PBZ significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected trunk growth, leaf growth and the total/reducing sugars ratio. However, the effect was lost in the next growth period. Thus, the overall effect is null in improving the vitality of this species, since the chlorophyll fluorescence values (Fv/Fm) were diminished after the treatment. Further research is suggested in order to improve the understanding of PBZ effect on white poplar.