Vol. 26, issue 3 September - December 2020   Creative Commons License

      
 

     Vol. 26, issue 3 September - December 2020  

 
  

Nitrogen fertilization in pecan and its effect on leaf nutrient concentration, yield and nut quality

Fertilización nitrogenada en nogal pecanero y su efecto en la concentración de nutrientes foliares, rendimiento y calidad de nuez

Oscar Cruz-Alvarez; Adriana Ofelia Hernández-Rodríguez; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Graciela Ávila-Quezada; Emilio Morales-Maldonado; Rafael Parra-Quezada; Loreto Robles-Hernandez; Damaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios

Keywords: Carya illinoensis, edible kernel, nitrogen use efficiency, nutritional management, kernel percentage

10.5154/r.rchsh.2019.10.021

Received: 2019/10/22
Accepted: 2020/05/04
Available online: 2020-06-09
Pages:163-173

Several studies indicate that nitrogen fertilization is one of the main constraints in obtaining higher yields and better nut quality in pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh] K. Koch). Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate a single and split application of nitrogen in ‘Western Schley’ variety pecan, as well as its effect on leaf nutrient concentration, yield and nut quality. A randomized complete block design with six replicates was established. N doses were 100, 150 and 200 kg∙ha-1; the single application was made in March and the split one in March and June. The leaf concentration of total N, P, K+ , Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, yield (kg∙tree-1), quality (nuts per kilogram and kernel percentage) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were determined. Significant interaction between factors was detected for the Zn2+ concentration and the single applied dose of 200 kg∙ha-1. With the single application of 100 kg∙ha-1, the highest yield (44.60 kg∙tree-1) and nuts per kilogram (194.83) values were recorded, where the kernel percentage remained constant. The maximum NUE was obtained with 100 kg∙ha-1 applied in a single and split application (31.10 and 30.10 kg of nuts produced per kg of N applied, respectively). Increased yield and nut quality is the main objective in applying optimal N doses; however, ways of reducing the economic and environmental impact caused by its excessive application should also be sought.

  • Single and split application of nitrogen, as well as its effect on leaf nutrient concentration, yield and nut quality, was evaluated.
  • Single and split application did not affect the leaf concentration of total N, P, K + ,Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ or Cu 2+.
  • Single N application of 100 kg∙ha -1 favored yield and number of nuts per kilogram.
  • The highest NUE was obtained with 100 kg∙ha-1 applied in a single and split way.
  • Several studies indicate that nitrogen fertilization is one of the main constraints in obtaining higher yields and better nut quality in pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh] K. Koch). Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate a single and split application of nitrogen in ‘Western Schley’ variety pecan, as well as its effect on leaf nutrient concentration, yield and nut quality. A randomized complete block design with six replicates was established. N doses were 100, 150 and 200 kg∙ha-1; the single application was made in March and the split one in March and June. The leaf concentration of total N, P, K+ , Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+, yield (kg∙tree-1), quality (nuts per kilogram and kernel percentage) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were determined. Significant interaction between factors was detected for the Zn2+ concentration and the single applied dose of 200 kg∙ha-1. With the single application of 100 kg∙ha-1, the highest yield (44.60 kg∙tree-1) and nuts per kilogram (194.83) values were recorded, where the kernel percentage remained constant. The maximum NUE was obtained with 100 kg∙ha-1 applied in a single and split application (31.10 and 30.10 kg of nuts produced per kg of N applied, respectively). Increased yield and nut quality is the main objective in applying optimal N doses; however, ways of reducing the economic and environmental impact caused by its excessive application should also be sought.

    • Single and split application of nitrogen, as well as its effect on leaf nutrient concentration, yield and nut quality, was evaluated.
    • Single and split application did not affect the leaf concentration of total N, P, K + ,Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ or Cu 2+.
    • Single N application of 100 kg∙ha -1 favored yield and number of nuts per kilogram.
    • The highest NUE was obtained with 100 kg∙ha-1 applied in a single and split way.
     

    Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh for domestication and conservation on uplands

    Determinación de evapotranspiración y coeficiente de cultivo de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh para su domesticación y conservación en suelos de tierra firme

    Carlos Abanto-Rodríguez; Wellington Farias Araújo; Pollyana Cardoso Chagas; Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira; Edvan Alves Chagas; Matheus Gonçalves Paulichi; João Vito García de Lima; Roberto Tadashi Sakazaki; João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto; Miguel Ángel Maffei Valero; Caio Cesar Souza Pinho; Luís Felipe Paes-de Almeida

    Keywords: camu-camu, Amazon, hydric balance, cacari, organic mulching

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2019.10.020

    Received: 2019-10-17
    Accepted: 2020-07-13
    Available online: 2020-08-28
    Pages:175-188

    Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh is a fruit tree native to the Amazon with great potential due to its nutraceutical properties; thus, ex situ adaptation technologies should be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) of Myrciaria dubia for domestication and conservation on uplands. Two Myrciaria dubia plants of 2, 4, and 6 years old with similar morphological characteristics of height, number of branches (basal and terminal), and diameter (stem and canopy) were transplanted into drainage lysimeters. Residue of organic mulching composed of a native grass (Trachypogon plumosus) was applied once to one plant of each age category. The mean ETc values for 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old plants in the presence and absence of mulch were 2- and 2.7-mm∙day-1, 3.2- and 3.9-mm∙day-1, and 6.1- and 7.2-mm∙day-1, respectively. The mean Kc values in the EI, EII, and EIII phenological stages with and without mulch were 0.4 and 0.6, 0.6 and 0.8, and 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. The ETc and Kc values for Myrciaria dubia plants with organic mulching can be used in irrigation planning for cultivation, domestication, conservation, and efficient use of water resources in tropical savannas of Roraima, Brazil.

    Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh is a fruit tree native to the Amazon with great potential due to its nutraceutical properties; thus, ex situ adaptation technologies should be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) of Myrciaria dubia for domestication and conservation on uplands. Two Myrciaria dubia plants of 2, 4, and 6 years old with similar morphological characteristics of height, number of branches (basal and terminal), and diameter (stem and canopy) were transplanted into drainage lysimeters. Residue of organic mulching composed of a native grass (Trachypogon plumosus) was applied once to one plant of each age category. The mean ETc values for 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old plants in the presence and absence of mulch were 2- and 2.7-mm∙day-1, 3.2- and 3.9-mm∙day-1, and 6.1- and 7.2-mm∙day-1, respectively. The mean Kc values in the EI, EII, and EIII phenological stages with and without mulch were 0.4 and 0.6, 0.6 and 0.8, and 1.1 and 1.3, respectively. The ETc and Kc values for Myrciaria dubia plants with organic mulching can be used in irrigation planning for cultivation, domestication, conservation, and efficient use of water resources in tropical savannas of Roraima, Brazil.

     

    In situ characterization of soursop (Annona muricata L.) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    Caracterización in situ de guanábana (Annona muricata L.) en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México

    Juan Manuel Villarreal-Fuentes; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Marvin Armando Hernández-Salvador; Emilio Hernández-Ortiz; Francisco Javier Marroquín-Agreda; Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín; Eduardo Campos-Rojas

    Keywords: plant genetic resources, sugars, titratable acidity, phenols, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2020.05.008

    Received: 2020-04-29
    Accepted: 2020-07-27
    Available online: 2020-08-26
    Pages: 189-205

    Soursop fruit is highly appreciated for its organoleptic and medicinal characteristics and for its diversity in industrialization; however, there are no varieties generated in Mexico, even though it is believed that there is great diversity of this species in the country. This study aimed to assess the variability among soursop fruits grown in four municipalities of the Soconusco region, Chiapas, based on their physical and chemical characteristics, and to propose some materials for fresh consumption or industry use. Twentyeight trees propagated from seed and approximately 10 years of age were selected at each commercial orchard. Six fruits at physiological maturity were collected from each tree; then they were ripened and some quality characteristics, functional metabolites and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The population showed high variability (between 42 and 135 %) in fruit, pulp, seed and rachis weight, as well as in the chromaticity in pulp and peel, total soluble solids, total sugars and antioxidant activity. The formation of four groups was determined, where groups 1 and 2 (Tapachula and Huehuetán trees) had the fruits with the best productivity characteristics, namely greater weight and fruit size, while the fruits of groups 3 and 4 (Mazatán and Cacahoatán trees) were characterized by better flavor characteristics, a higher contribution of functional metabolites and greater antioxidant activity. Size, nutraceutical properties, peel chromaticity and brightness, sugars content and fruit acidity are important variables that helped to detect variability in soursop fruits.

  • High variability was detected in soursop fruits from 28 trees in situ.
  • Fruit weight, pulp chromaticity, soluble carbohydrates and antioxidant activity determined group formation.
  • Groups of trees with commercial potential for industry use and fresh consumption were identified.
  • In Soconusco, Chiapas, there are promising materials for soursop breeding.
  • Soursop fruit is highly appreciated for its organoleptic and medicinal characteristics and for its diversity in industrialization; however, there are no varieties generated in Mexico, even though it is believed that there is great diversity of this species in the country. This study aimed to assess the variability among soursop fruits grown in four municipalities of the Soconusco region, Chiapas, based on their physical and chemical characteristics, and to propose some materials for fresh consumption or industry use. Twentyeight trees propagated from seed and approximately 10 years of age were selected at each commercial orchard. Six fruits at physiological maturity were collected from each tree; then they were ripened and some quality characteristics, functional metabolites and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The population showed high variability (between 42 and 135 %) in fruit, pulp, seed and rachis weight, as well as in the chromaticity in pulp and peel, total soluble solids, total sugars and antioxidant activity. The formation of four groups was determined, where groups 1 and 2 (Tapachula and Huehuetán trees) had the fruits with the best productivity characteristics, namely greater weight and fruit size, while the fruits of groups 3 and 4 (Mazatán and Cacahoatán trees) were characterized by better flavor characteristics, a higher contribution of functional metabolites and greater antioxidant activity. Size, nutraceutical properties, peel chromaticity and brightness, sugars content and fruit acidity are important variables that helped to detect variability in soursop fruits.

    • High variability was detected in soursop fruits from 28 trees in situ.
    • Fruit weight, pulp chromaticity, soluble carbohydrates and antioxidant activity determined group formation.
    • Groups of trees with commercial potential for industry use and fresh consumption were identified.
    • In Soconusco, Chiapas, there are promising materials for soursop breeding.
     

    Fertilization management in ‘Pinto Centauro’ beans and its impact on yield, nutritional quality and profitability index

    Manejo de fertilización en frijol ‘Pinto Centauro’ y su impacto en el rendimiento, calidad nutricional e índice de rentabilidad

    María Antonia Flores-Córdova; Iván A. Rico-Alderete; Esteban Sánchez-Chávez; Juan Manual Soto-Parra; Rubén Antillón-Leyva; Nora A. Salas-Salazar; Damaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios

    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, physicochemical, yield, Zn, Fe

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2020.03.005

    Received: 2020-03-09
    Accepted: 2020-08-08
    Available online: 2020-08-31
    Pages:207-222

    Fertilization offers a way to counteract micronutrient deficiencies and achieve a higher mineral content in plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response to fertilization management in ‘Pinto Centauro’ beans, as well as its impact on yield, nutritional quality and profitability index. The study was conducted during the springsummer 2017 growing season in a rainfed ‘Pinto Centauro’ bean crop in the municipality of Cusihuiriachi, Chihuahua, Mexico. A randomized complete block experimental design was used with three fertilization management schemes: control FM1 (N, P and K, with 41, 46 and 22 kg∙ha-1, respectively), fertilization FM2 (N, P, K, S and Zn, with 41, 46, 22, 12 and 1 kg∙ha-1, respectively) and fertilization FM3 (N, P, K, S and Zn, with 45, 60, 22, 22 and 1.5 kg∙ha-1, respectively). Yield, nutritional quality (physicochemical properties and mineral content) and profitability were evaluated. The results obtained were statistically significant. FM3 fertilization increased yield by 46.26 %. In terms of nutritional quality, the highest concentrations were 8.35 % protein, 74 % phosphorus, 16.3 % iron and 39.77 % zinc. The profitability index was higher (55 %) with the FM3 treatment, compared to the control. Fertilization improved bean productivity and quality under rainfed conditions, making it a viable and sustainable strategy in semi-arid bean producing regions in Mexico and the world.

    Fertilization offers a way to counteract micronutrient deficiencies and achieve a higher mineral content in plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response to fertilization management in ‘Pinto Centauro’ beans, as well as its impact on yield, nutritional quality and profitability index. The study was conducted during the springsummer 2017 growing season in a rainfed ‘Pinto Centauro’ bean crop in the municipality of Cusihuiriachi, Chihuahua, Mexico. A randomized complete block experimental design was used with three fertilization management schemes: control FM1 (N, P and K, with 41, 46 and 22 kg∙ha-1, respectively), fertilization FM2 (N, P, K, S and Zn, with 41, 46, 22, 12 and 1 kg∙ha-1, respectively) and fertilization FM3 (N, P, K, S and Zn, with 45, 60, 22, 22 and 1.5 kg∙ha-1, respectively). Yield, nutritional quality (physicochemical properties and mineral content) and profitability were evaluated. The results obtained were statistically significant. FM3 fertilization increased yield by 46.26 %. In terms of nutritional quality, the highest concentrations were 8.35 % protein, 74 % phosphorus, 16.3 % iron and 39.77 % zinc. The profitability index was higher (55 %) with the FM3 treatment, compared to the control. Fertilization improved bean productivity and quality under rainfed conditions, making it a viable and sustainable strategy in semi-arid bean producing regions in Mexico and the world.

     

    GENETIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) CHF1 CULTIVAR

    Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; José D. Molina-Galán; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; J. Ortíz-Cereceres; F. Márquez-Sánchez; T. Cervantez-Santana; J.F. Santiaguillo-Hernández

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.046

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ON-FARM GENETIC DIVERSITY AND CROPPING SYSTEM OF Phaseolus vulgaris AND Vigna unguiculata AT THE CHONTALPA REGION IN TABASCO, MÉXICO

    Luz del C. Lagunes-Espinoza; F. Gallardo-López; H. Becerril-Hernández; E.D. Bolaños-Aguilar

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.047

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    PLANT PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) ANA CULTIVAR SELECTIONS AT AGUASCALIENTES

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.05.026

    Received: 2007-05-14
    Accepted: 2007-08-06
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS AND INLFLUENCE IN THE TOMATO CROP (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL)

    E. Utria-Borges; J.A. Cabrera-Rodriguez; I.M. Reynaldo-Escobar; D. Morales-Guevara; A.M. Fernández; E. Toledo-Toledo

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.009

    Received: 2006-02-04
    Accepted: 2007-05-16
    Available online: 2016-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SAPOTE MAMEY FRUITS (Pouteria sapota), IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF MORELOS

    A. Gaona-García; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Víctor López-Martínez; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Oscar Gabriel Villegas-Torres

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.013

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    WATER DEFICIT AND CROP LOAD EFFECTS ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.014

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    NITRIC NUTRITION, AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS EFFECTS ON STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) FLAVOR

    L.A. Ojeda-Real; R. Cárdenas-Navaro; Phillipe Lobbit; O. Grageda-Cabrera; E. Valencia-Cantero; L. Macías-Rodriguez

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.015

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007/08/30
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    EFFECT OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND Bacillus subtilis ON Cucumber mosaic virus GOURD INFECTION

    E. Maldonado-Cruz; D. Ochoa-Martínez; Bertha Tlapal-Bolaños

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.010

    Received: 2007-02-12
    Accepted: 2007-08-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    RIPENING SEASON AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE GENOTYPES AT CADEREYTA, QUERETARO

    D. Mendoza-González; Ramón Álvar Martínez-Peniche; M.R. Fernández-Montes; Agustín Rumayor-Flores; E. Castillo-Castañeda

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.011

    Received: 2007-02-19
    Accepted: 2007-09-11
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDES EVALUATION FOR DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk. & Curt.) Rost. ON CANTALOUPE MELON (Cucumis melo L.)

    E. Ruíz-Sánchez; J.M. Tún-Suárez; L.L. Pinzón-López; G. Valerio-Hernández; M.J. Zavala-León

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2005.09.034

    Received: 2005-09-07
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    HARVEST DELAY IN CACTUS PEAR cv. CRISTALINA

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.016

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ‘AUTUMN BLISS’ RED RASPBERRY PHENOLOGY AT GUERRERO, CHIHUAHUA STATE, MEXICO

    Rafael Parra-Quezada; M.R. Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Jesús Guadalupe Arreola-Ávila

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.04.024

    Received: 2007-04-23
    Accepted: 2007-10-03
    Available online: 2016-07-01

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