Vol. 28, issue 1 January - April 2022   Creative Commons License

      
 

     Vol. 28, issue 1 January - April 2022  

 
  

Effect of Cl- and Na+ ratios in nutrient solutions on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield in a hydroponic system

Efecto de relaciones Cl- y Na+ en soluciones nutritivas sobre el rendimiento de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en hidroponía

Saúl Parra-Terraza; Azareel Angulo-Castro; Pedro Sánchez-Peña; José Benigno Valdéz-Torres; Werner Rubio-Carrasco

Keywords: dry matter, mineral composition, osmotic potential, ionic

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.01.001

Received: 2021/01/01
Accepted: 2021/12/17
Available online: 2022-01-11
Pages:

Intensive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in coastal areas of Sinaloa is exposed to significant amounts of Cl and Na deposited by sea breezes and irrigation water, which affects the yield of this vegetable. The aim of this study was to evaluate three percentage ratios of Cl-/anions (25/100, 50/100 and 75/100) and three percentage ratios of Na+/cations (25/100, 50/100 and 75/100) in the nutrient solution on mineral composition, dry matter production and yield of tomato. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 32 factorial arrangement and four replications. Analysis of variance and mean comparisons were performed (Tukey, P ≤ 0.05). Cl and Na concentrations in tomato leaves, stems and fruits increased significantly with increasing ratios of Cl-/anions and Na+/cations in the nutrient solution. The 75/100 Cl-/anions ratio reduced (P ≤ 0.05) the Ca concentration in leaves, while the 75/100 Na+/cations ratio decreased (P ≤ 0.05) K concentrations in leaves and stems. Both ratios reduced aerial dry biomass (48 and 25.8 %, respectively) and tomato yield (50.8 and 45.7 %, respectively). The results indicate that tomato plants grown with the 75/100 percentage ratio of Cl-/anions or the 75/100 percentage ratio of Na+/ cations absorb excessive amounts of Cl or Na, which causes ionic imbalance (especially of K+ and Ca2+) and affects dry matter production and yield.

Intensive tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in coastal areas of Sinaloa is exposed to significant amounts of Cl and Na deposited by sea breezes and irrigation water, which affects the yield of this vegetable. The aim of this study was to evaluate three percentage ratios of Cl-/anions (25/100, 50/100 and 75/100) and three percentage ratios of Na+/cations (25/100, 50/100 and 75/100) in the nutrient solution on mineral composition, dry matter production and yield of tomato. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 32 factorial arrangement and four replications. Analysis of variance and mean comparisons were performed (Tukey, P ≤ 0.05). Cl and Na concentrations in tomato leaves, stems and fruits increased significantly with increasing ratios of Cl-/anions and Na+/cations in the nutrient solution. The 75/100 Cl-/anions ratio reduced (P ≤ 0.05) the Ca concentration in leaves, while the 75/100 Na+/cations ratio decreased (P ≤ 0.05) K concentrations in leaves and stems. Both ratios reduced aerial dry biomass (48 and 25.8 %, respectively) and tomato yield (50.8 and 45.7 %, respectively). The results indicate that tomato plants grown with the 75/100 percentage ratio of Cl-/anions or the 75/100 percentage ratio of Na+/ cations absorb excessive amounts of Cl or Na, which causes ionic imbalance (especially of K+ and Ca2+) and affects dry matter production and yield.

 

In vitro propagation of select tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) plant families

Propagación In vitro de familias de plantas selectas de tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)

Héctor Luna-Vicente; Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; Natanael Magaña-Lira; José Luis Rodríguez-de la O; Juan Martínez-Solís

Keywords: aclimatización, cultivo in vitro, fenología

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.004

Received: 2021/03/12
Accepted: 2021/12/03
Available online: 2022-01-11
Pages:

The objective was to propagate select Physalis ixocarpa plants in vitro, acclimatize them and describe their phenological cycle. The in vitro response of stem apices was evaluated in families from the Tecozautla 04, Manzano Tepetlixpa and Morado San Miguel varieties. The apices were cultured in a medium containing Murashige and Skoog inorganic salts (100 %), supplemented with 0.4 mg·L-1 thiamine, 60 mg·L-1 L-cysteine, 100 mg·L-1 myo-inositol, 0.5 mg·L-1 nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg·L-1 pantothenic acid, 3 % sucrose and 7 g·L-1 agar, without growth regulators and the pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1. in vitro rooting was done for 30 days, with 16 h of light at 3,000 μmol∙m-2∙s-1. The variables evaluated in vitro were seedling height, vigor, callus presence, root length, and number of leaves, roots, stems and buds. Plants produced in vitro were acclimatized and transplanted in greenhouses to follow their phenological cycle. The variables evaluated in acclimatization and phenological cycle were plant height and number of leaves, buds, flowers and set fruits. A completely randomized design was used for the in vitro evaluation, and randomized complete blocks for the greenhouse. The families with the best morphogenic responses in vitro were Tecozautla 04 and Manzano, and in phenological development they presented greater plant height. In acclimatization, survival was 100 % in all clones. in vitro responses, acclimatization and phenology depended on the variety and families.

The objective was to propagate select Physalis ixocarpa plants in vitro, acclimatize them and describe their phenological cycle. The in vitro response of stem apices was evaluated in families from the Tecozautla 04, Manzano Tepetlixpa and Morado San Miguel varieties. The apices were cultured in a medium containing Murashige and Skoog inorganic salts (100 %), supplemented with 0.4 mg·L-1 thiamine, 60 mg·L-1 L-cysteine, 100 mg·L-1 myo-inositol, 0.5 mg·L-1 nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg·L-1 pantothenic acid, 3 % sucrose and 7 g·L-1 agar, without growth regulators and the pH adjusted to 5.7 ± 0.1. in vitro rooting was done for 30 days, with 16 h of light at 3,000 μmol∙m-2∙s-1. The variables evaluated in vitro were seedling height, vigor, callus presence, root length, and number of leaves, roots, stems and buds. Plants produced in vitro were acclimatized and transplanted in greenhouses to follow their phenological cycle. The variables evaluated in acclimatization and phenological cycle were plant height and number of leaves, buds, flowers and set fruits. A completely randomized design was used for the in vitro evaluation, and randomized complete blocks for the greenhouse. The families with the best morphogenic responses in vitro were Tecozautla 04 and Manzano, and in phenological development they presented greater plant height. In acclimatization, survival was 100 % in all clones. in vitro responses, acclimatization and phenology depended on the variety and families.

 

In vitro mutagenesis in anthurium induced by colchicine

Mutagénesis in vitro en auturio inducida mediante colchicina

María Isabel López-Martínez; Alejandrina Robledo-Paz; Luis Antonio Flores-Hernández; Tarsicio Corona-Torres; Martha Hernández-Rodríguez; Gabino García-de los Santos

Keywords: Anthurium andreanum L., aneuploids, cytogenetics, plant regeneration, tissue culture

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.06.011

Received: 2021/05/31
Accepted: 2021/09/23
Available online: 2022-01-11
Pages:

Developing new varieties of anthurium by hybridization can take 8-10 years; therefore, induced mutagenesis can be an alternative strategy to hybridization. The objective of this work was to induce mutations in A. andreanum by exposing explants obtained from vitroplants to colchicine. Explants of leaves, nodes and roots obtained from vitroplants were exposed to 0.1 % colchicine for 0, 2, 3 and 4 h. The mean lethal dose (LD50), survival, number of explants that generated callus, number of explants that formed shoots and the number of shoots per explant were evaluated. The karyotype of the presumed mutated regenerated plants was determined by the root apex squash technique. The leaves showed the highest sensitivity to cochicine. The survival of the root explants treated with colchicine was 100 %; 4 % of roots exposed for 2 and 3 h formed adventitious shoots (120 shoots). For nodes, the LD50 was found at 3.98 h; 76 and 56 % of the nodes cultivated for 2 and 3 h with colchicine formed adventitious shoots (4.4 and 3.6 shoots). The plants regenerated from the explants exposed to colchicine showed morphological changes. The chromosomal number of the regenerated vitroplants from the explants exposed for 2 and 3 h to colchicine was 2n = 29, while that of those obtained from the explants that remained on the colchicine for 4 h was 2n = 31. The sensitivity to colchicine was a function of the type of explant and the dose used. Colchicine caused the loss (monosomy) or gain of chromosomes (trisomy).

Developing new varieties of anthurium by hybridization can take 8-10 years; therefore, induced mutagenesis can be an alternative strategy to hybridization. The objective of this work was to induce mutations in A. andreanum by exposing explants obtained from vitroplants to colchicine. Explants of leaves, nodes and roots obtained from vitroplants were exposed to 0.1 % colchicine for 0, 2, 3 and 4 h. The mean lethal dose (LD50), survival, number of explants that generated callus, number of explants that formed shoots and the number of shoots per explant were evaluated. The karyotype of the presumed mutated regenerated plants was determined by the root apex squash technique. The leaves showed the highest sensitivity to cochicine. The survival of the root explants treated with colchicine was 100 %; 4 % of roots exposed for 2 and 3 h formed adventitious shoots (120 shoots). For nodes, the LD50 was found at 3.98 h; 76 and 56 % of the nodes cultivated for 2 and 3 h with colchicine formed adventitious shoots (4.4 and 3.6 shoots). The plants regenerated from the explants exposed to colchicine showed morphological changes. The chromosomal number of the regenerated vitroplants from the explants exposed for 2 and 3 h to colchicine was 2n = 29, while that of those obtained from the explants that remained on the colchicine for 4 h was 2n = 31. The sensitivity to colchicine was a function of the type of explant and the dose used. Colchicine caused the loss (monosomy) or gain of chromosomes (trisomy).

 

Garcinia intermedia, a little-known fruit tree in the American tropics

Garcinia intermedia, un frutal poco conocido en los trópicos de América

Jorge Andrés-Agustín; Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo; José Carlos Bautista-Villegas

Keywords: Rheedia edosulis, Mesoamerican fruit trees, Garcinia species, underutilized fruit trees, benzophenones

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.005

Received: 2021/03/16
Accepted: 2021/08/23
Available online: 2021-11-04
Pages:05-15

Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel, known as the lemon drop mangosteen in English and by a variety of names including limoncillo and toronjil in Mexico, belongs to the family Clusiaceae, and is distributed in the warm tropical regions of Mexico and Central America at elevations of 300 to 1,000 m. It is an underutilized fruit tree that reaches up to 20 m in height and produces yellow fruits with up to four seeds. The pulp is bittersweet and is highly valued by the rural population of the regions where it grows, where bats and spider monkeys also consume it. The fruit has medicinal properties; it is rich in benzophenones, which attack colon cancer cells. The fruit of G. intermedia has higher antioxidant capacity than the fruit of the mangosteen (G. mangostana Linn.); however, little is known about the horticultural management of this species, and basic knowledge, such as asexual propagation or postharvest conservation, has not been reported. There is no information on ex situ conservation of this species in Mexico and Central America, and no selection of outstanding specimens with high quality fruits has been made. Most of the information reported so far for this species is about its ecology and medicinal properties.

Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel, known as the lemon drop mangosteen in English and by a variety of names including limoncillo and toronjil in Mexico, belongs to the family Clusiaceae, and is distributed in the warm tropical regions of Mexico and Central America at elevations of 300 to 1,000 m. It is an underutilized fruit tree that reaches up to 20 m in height and produces yellow fruits with up to four seeds. The pulp is bittersweet and is highly valued by the rural population of the regions where it grows, where bats and spider monkeys also consume it. The fruit has medicinal properties; it is rich in benzophenones, which attack colon cancer cells. The fruit of G. intermedia has higher antioxidant capacity than the fruit of the mangosteen (G. mangostana Linn.); however, little is known about the horticultural management of this species, and basic knowledge, such as asexual propagation or postharvest conservation, has not been reported. There is no information on ex situ conservation of this species in Mexico and Central America, and no selection of outstanding specimens with high quality fruits has been made. Most of the information reported so far for this species is about its ecology and medicinal properties.

 

GENETIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) CHF1 CULTIVAR

Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; José D. Molina-Galán; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; J. Ortíz-Cereceres; F. Márquez-Sánchez; T. Cervantez-Santana; J.F. Santiaguillo-Hernández

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.046

Received: 2006-11-08
Accepted: 2007-08-14
Available online: 2016-07-01

ON-FARM GENETIC DIVERSITY AND CROPPING SYSTEM OF Phaseolus vulgaris AND Vigna unguiculata AT THE CHONTALPA REGION IN TABASCO, MÉXICO

Luz del C. Lagunes-Espinoza; F. Gallardo-López; H. Becerril-Hernández; E.D. Bolaños-Aguilar

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.047

Received: 2006-11-08
Accepted: 2007-08-14
Available online: 2016-07-01

PLANT PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) ANA CULTIVAR SELECTIONS AT AGUASCALIENTES

10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.05.026

Received: 2007-05-14
Accepted: 2007-08-06
Available online: 2016-07-01

AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS AND INLFLUENCE IN THE TOMATO CROP (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL)

E. Utria-Borges; J.A. Cabrera-Rodriguez; I.M. Reynaldo-Escobar; D. Morales-Guevara; A.M. Fernández; E. Toledo-Toledo

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.009

Received: 2006-02-04
Accepted: 2007-05-16
Available online: 2016-01-01

CHARACTERIZATION OF SAPOTE MAMEY FRUITS (Pouteria sapota), IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF MORELOS

A. Gaona-García; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Víctor López-Martínez; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Oscar Gabriel Villegas-Torres

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.013

Received: 2006-02-14
Accepted: 2007-06-26
Available online: 2016-07-01

WATER DEFICIT AND CROP LOAD EFFECTS ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.014

Received: 2006-02-14
Accepted: 2007-06-26
Available online: 2016-07-01

NITRIC NUTRITION, AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS EFFECTS ON STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) FLAVOR

L.A. Ojeda-Real; R. Cárdenas-Navaro; Phillipe Lobbit; O. Grageda-Cabrera; E. Valencia-Cantero; L. Macías-Rodriguez

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.015

Received: 2006-02-14
Accepted: 2007/08/30
Available online: 2016-07-01

EFFECT OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND Bacillus subtilis ON Cucumber mosaic virus GOURD INFECTION

E. Maldonado-Cruz; D. Ochoa-Martínez; Bertha Tlapal-Bolaños

10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.010

Received: 2007-02-12
Accepted: 2007-08-28
Available online: 2016-07-01

RIPENING SEASON AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE GENOTYPES AT CADEREYTA, QUERETARO

D. Mendoza-González; Ramón Álvar Martínez-Peniche; M.R. Fernández-Montes; Agustín Rumayor-Flores; E. Castillo-Castañeda

10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.011

Received: 2007-02-19
Accepted: 2007-09-11
Available online: 2016-07-01

SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDES EVALUATION FOR DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk. & Curt.) Rost. ON CANTALOUPE MELON (Cucumis melo L.)

E. Ruíz-Sánchez; J.M. Tún-Suárez; L.L. Pinzón-López; G. Valerio-Hernández; M.J. Zavala-León

10.5154/r.rchsh.2005.09.034

Received: 2005-09-07
Accepted: 2007-09-28
Available online: 2016-07-01

HARVEST DELAY IN CACTUS PEAR cv. CRISTALINA

Jorge Alberto Zegbe-Dominguez; Jaime Mena-Covarrubias

10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.016

Received: 2006-02-14
Accepted: 2007-09-28
Available online: 2016-07-01

‘AUTUMN BLISS’ RED RASPBERRY PHENOLOGY AT GUERRERO, CHIHUAHUA STATE, MEXICO

Rafael Parra-Quezada; M.R. Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Jesús Guadalupe Arreola-Ávila

10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.04.024

Received: 2007-04-23
Accepted: 2007-10-03
Available online: 2016-07-01

All issues

 
 
 

Journal information

Now including Plum X Metrics

Usage, Captures, Mentions, Social Media and Citation.

navigate_nextLearn more

Publication ethics

Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura subscribes to the code of ethics of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

navigate_nextRead ethics code