Vol. 28, issue 3 September - December 2022   Creative Commons License

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     Vol. 28, issue 3 September - December 2022  

 
  

Relationships between stomatal and gas exchange characteristics of the leaf blade in ‘Colín V-33’ avocado seedlings

Relaciones entre características estomáticas y de intercambio de gases de la lámina foliar en plántulas de semilla de aguacate ‘Colín V-33’

Nora Virginia Useche-Carrillo; Juan Ayala-Arreola; Eduardo Campos-Rojas; Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego

Keywords: Persea americana Mill., gas exchange, stomatal index, stomatal density, stomatal conductance, transpiration

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.05.008

Received: 2021-05-07
Accepted: 2022-07-06
Available online: 2022-08-24
Pages:133-144

The use of avocado rootstocks is very common, but these have been little studied from the anatomical and physiological point of view of the leaf, variables that can be useful to understand their role when grafted, such as those related to stomata and gas exchange. The aim of this research was to study the stomatal and gas exchange characteristics of the leaf blade in seedlings derived from ‘Colín V-33’ avocado seed to determine possible relationships between them. Ninety-three six-month-old ‘Colín V-33’ seed-derived plants were used. Four stomatal and five gas exchange variables were evaluated in the eleventh leaf of each plant. Stomata were classified as anomocytic, and their length ranged from 13.11 to 19.65 μm, their density varied from 317.65 to 105.88 stomata·mm-2 and their stomatal index was from 11.78 to 26.16 %. A significant positive correlation was found between the physiological variables stomatal conductance and transpiration rate (r = 0.96**), while the CO2 assimilation rate and internal CO2 concentration were negatively correlated(r = -0.64**). No association was found between gas exchange characteristics and stoma-related variables. Due to the variation found in stomatal density and stomatal index, it is possible to select contrasting genotypes that could have an impact on grafting when used as rootstocks, given the evidence from other studies where there are modifications in these variables.

The use of avocado rootstocks is very common, but these have been little studied from the anatomical and physiological point of view of the leaf, variables that can be useful to understand their role when grafted, such as those related to stomata and gas exchange. The aim of this research was to study the stomatal and gas exchange characteristics of the leaf blade in seedlings derived from ‘Colín V-33’ avocado seed to determine possible relationships between them. Ninety-three six-month-old ‘Colín V-33’ seed-derived plants were used. Four stomatal and five gas exchange variables were evaluated in the eleventh leaf of each plant. Stomata were classified as anomocytic, and their length ranged from 13.11 to 19.65 μm, their density varied from 317.65 to 105.88 stomata·mm-2 and their stomatal index was from 11.78 to 26.16 %. A significant positive correlation was found between the physiological variables stomatal conductance and transpiration rate (r = 0.96**), while the CO2 assimilation rate and internal CO2 concentration were negatively correlated(r = -0.64**). No association was found between gas exchange characteristics and stoma-related variables. Due to the variation found in stomatal density and stomatal index, it is possible to select contrasting genotypes that could have an impact on grafting when used as rootstocks, given the evidence from other studies where there are modifications in these variables.

 

Chelated zinc and beneficial microorganisms: a sustainable fertilization option for pecan production

Zinc quelado y microorganismos benéficos: una opción de fertilización sostenible en la producción de nueces

Socorro H. Tarango-Rivero; Graciela D. Ávila-Quezada; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Claudia A Ramírez-Valdespino; Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda; Raúl Rodríguez-Heredia; Ana Luisa Olivas-Tarango

Keywords: Carya illinoinensis, Pisolithus tinctorius, mycorrhizal fungi, soil zinc.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2022.01.001

Received: 2021-10-29
Accepted: 2022-07-06
Available online: 2022-08-24
Pages:145-159

Zinc (Zn) fertilization of pecan trees is carried out by foliar spraying, since the nutrient in the soil is bound to carbonates, which hinders its absorption by the tree. This practice has environmental repercussions because it is an aerosol. Therefore, the objective of this study was to generate an alternative to foliar Zn application with soil-applied chelated Zn combined with beneficial microorganisms to maintain or improve pecan production. Fifteen homogeneous trees were selected based on trunk cross-sectional area and crown volume in a pecan orchard in Chihuahua, Mexico. During four years (2015-2018), three treatments with five replications were evaluated under a completely randomized design. The treatments were: 1) foliar Zn (36 % ZnSO4), 2) soil Zn (14 % Zn chelated with carboxylic acids) and 3) soil Zn + mycorrhizal fungus (Pisolithus tinctorius + Azospirillum brasilense). The orchard studied had native communities of P. tinctorius, which was found in 83.7 % of the roots analyzed. Pecan production, in the four years, with the different treatments was 27 kg with foliar Zn, 25.4 kg with chelated Zn and 26.9 kg with chelated Zn plus microorganisms. The results indicate that soil-applied Zn is a viable and environmentally friendly option.

  • The application of soil Zn during the day (instead of foliar Zn in nighttime applications) reduces environmental contamination and maintains pecan production.
  • Pecan tree roots have native communities of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.
  • The greater the mycorrhization, the greater the uptake of soil Zn.
  • Zinc (Zn) fertilization of pecan trees is carried out by foliar spraying, since the nutrient in the soil is bound to carbonates, which hinders its absorption by the tree. This practice has environmental repercussions because it is an aerosol. Therefore, the objective of this study was to generate an alternative to foliar Zn application with soil-applied chelated Zn combined with beneficial microorganisms to maintain or improve pecan production. Fifteen homogeneous trees were selected based on trunk cross-sectional area and crown volume in a pecan orchard in Chihuahua, Mexico. During four years (2015-2018), three treatments with five replications were evaluated under a completely randomized design. The treatments were: 1) foliar Zn (36 % ZnSO4), 2) soil Zn (14 % Zn chelated with carboxylic acids) and 3) soil Zn + mycorrhizal fungus (Pisolithus tinctorius + Azospirillum brasilense). The orchard studied had native communities of P. tinctorius, which was found in 83.7 % of the roots analyzed. Pecan production, in the four years, with the different treatments was 27 kg with foliar Zn, 25.4 kg with chelated Zn and 26.9 kg with chelated Zn plus microorganisms. The results indicate that soil-applied Zn is a viable and environmentally friendly option.

    • The application of soil Zn during the day (instead of foliar Zn in nighttime applications) reduces environmental contamination and maintains pecan production.
    • Pecan tree roots have native communities of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.
    • The greater the mycorrhization, the greater the uptake of soil Zn.
     

    Phenolic profile and nutritional value of Dahlia x hortorum flowers

    Perfil fenólico y valor nutricional de flores de Dahlia x hortorum

    Francisca Hernández-Epigmenio; Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos; Eliseo Sosa-Montes; José Merced Mejía-Muñoz; Yolanda Leticia Fernández-Pavia; Oscar Cruz-Álvarez; María Teresa Martínez-Damián

    Keywords: ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, composición proximal, florifagia, recursos fitogenéticos.

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2022.03.004

    Received: 2022-02-22
    Accepted: 2022-07-06
    Available online: 2022-08-24
    Pages:161-174

    The consumption of edible flowers has increased the search for new species to improve their nutritional impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the phenolic profile and nutritional value of the flowers of some Dahlia x hortorum clones (C1Var – variegated, C2Gui – cherry, C3Roj – red, C4Nar – orange, C5Ama – yellow, C6Fuc – fuchsia) and C7Ros – pink). The experiment was conducted at the Department of Plant Science, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Mexico, under a completely randomized experimental design with three replications. Phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic) and flavonoids (quercetin and hesperidin) were detected. Similar contents of gallic acid (between 1.91 and 3.19 μg·g) were found in C7Ros, C1Var, C5Ama and C4Nar, where C1Var also stood out for the presence of quercetin (81.46 μg·g-1). The highest incidence of caffeic acid and hesperidin was found in C2Gui and C6Fuc. In general, C1Var showed a high percentage of crude fiber, crude fat and protein, although the last one was similar to C7Ros and C5Ama (13.68 and 13.72 μg·g-1, respectively). Likewise, C2Gui, C4Nar and C3Roj showed variation with respect to total carbohydrates (64.09, 61.64 and 62.37 %, respectively). According to the results, dahlia ligulate flowers have a significant content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, fiber and protein, as well as a variable caloric level, so they can be considered as a functional food and be integrated into daily intake.

  • The phenolic profile and nutritional value of some D. x hortorum clones with different colored flowers were determined.
  • The evaluated flowers present a variable content of gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and hesperidin.
  • In general, ligulate flowers have a high carbohydrate content, followed by fiber, protein, crude fat and ash.
  • The evaluated dahlia flowers can be a complementary source of phenolic compounds, fiber, protein and variable caloric level, when consumed fresh.
  • The consumption of edible flowers has increased the search for new species to improve their nutritional impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the phenolic profile and nutritional value of the flowers of some Dahlia x hortorum clones (C1Var – variegated, C2Gui – cherry, C3Roj – red, C4Nar – orange, C5Ama – yellow, C6Fuc – fuchsia) and C7Ros – pink). The experiment was conducted at the Department of Plant Science, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Mexico, under a completely randomized experimental design with three replications. Phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic) and flavonoids (quercetin and hesperidin) were detected. Similar contents of gallic acid (between 1.91 and 3.19 μg·g) were found in C7Ros, C1Var, C5Ama and C4Nar, where C1Var also stood out for the presence of quercetin (81.46 μg·g-1). The highest incidence of caffeic acid and hesperidin was found in C2Gui and C6Fuc. In general, C1Var showed a high percentage of crude fiber, crude fat and protein, although the last one was similar to C7Ros and C5Ama (13.68 and 13.72 μg·g-1, respectively). Likewise, C2Gui, C4Nar and C3Roj showed variation with respect to total carbohydrates (64.09, 61.64 and 62.37 %, respectively). According to the results, dahlia ligulate flowers have a significant content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, fiber and protein, as well as a variable caloric level, so they can be considered as a functional food and be integrated into daily intake.

    • The phenolic profile and nutritional value of some D. x hortorum clones with different colored flowers were determined.
    • The evaluated flowers present a variable content of gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and hesperidin.
    • In general, ligulate flowers have a high carbohydrate content, followed by fiber, protein, crude fat and ash.
    • The evaluated dahlia flowers can be a complementary source of phenolic compounds, fiber, protein and variable caloric level, when consumed fresh.
     

    Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides identified as causal agents of broccoli head rot in Mexico

    Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum y Fusarium verticillioides agentes causales de la pudrición de brócoli en México

    Alda A. Arratia-Castro; Ernesto Fernández-Herrera; María G. Gómez-Espinoza; Teresa S. Herrera-Flores; María G. Moreno-Contreras; Eva M. Licea-de Anda; Irene I. Ramírez-Bustos

    Keywords: Brassica oleracea

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2022.03.003

    Received: 2022-02-05
    Accepted: 2022-08-12
    Available online: 2022-08-26
    Pages:175-188

    El brócoli es una de las hortalizas de mayor importancia económica en México, y una de las enfermedades que reduce su rendimiento y calidad es la pudrición del florete, la cual se ha asociado a diferentes fitopatógenos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar morfológica y molecularmente a los agentes causales de la pudrición del florete en el cultivo de brócoli en México. Se colectaron floretes con síntomas de pudrición en diferentes municipios del estado de Guanajuato (León, San Francisco del Rincón, Valle de Santiago, Abasolo, Juventino Rosas y Dolores Hidalgo). Los aislados obtenidos se identificaron con base en sus características culturales, morfológicas y molecularmente (mediante PCR-ITS) como Alternaria alternata (AA), Fusarium oxysporum (FO) y Fusarium verticillioides (FV). La patogenicidad de estas especies fúngicas se corroboró mediante los postulados de Koch. La frecuencia de aislamiento de los hongos fue de 55, 26 y 19 % para AA, FV y FO, respectivamente, del total de muestras analizadas. La secuencia obtenida de un aislado representativo de cada hongo se comparó con las reportadas en el banco de genes del NCBI, donde los mayores porcentajes de similitud fueron 99.6, 98.9 y 98.2 % para FO, FV y AA, respectivamente, con lo cual se confirmaron los resultados de la identificación morfológica. Este es el segundo reporte de la presencia de AA y FO asociados a la pudrición del florete de brócoli en México, y el primer reporte de FV como parte del complejo de agentes causales de esta enfermedad.

  • Losses caused by head rot of broccoli are over 40 % in Guanajuato, Mexico.
  • Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides are the causal agents of head rot of broccoli in Mexico.
  • 83 isolates of Fusarium spp. were identified in head rot of broccoli.
  • 102 isolates of Alternaria alternata were identified in head rot of broccoli.
  • El brócoli es una de las hortalizas de mayor importancia económica en México, y una de las enfermedades que reduce su rendimiento y calidad es la pudrición del florete, la cual se ha asociado a diferentes fitopatógenos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar morfológica y molecularmente a los agentes causales de la pudrición del florete en el cultivo de brócoli en México. Se colectaron floretes con síntomas de pudrición en diferentes municipios del estado de Guanajuato (León, San Francisco del Rincón, Valle de Santiago, Abasolo, Juventino Rosas y Dolores Hidalgo). Los aislados obtenidos se identificaron con base en sus características culturales, morfológicas y molecularmente (mediante PCR-ITS) como Alternaria alternata (AA), Fusarium oxysporum (FO) y Fusarium verticillioides (FV). La patogenicidad de estas especies fúngicas se corroboró mediante los postulados de Koch. La frecuencia de aislamiento de los hongos fue de 55, 26 y 19 % para AA, FV y FO, respectivamente, del total de muestras analizadas. La secuencia obtenida de un aislado representativo de cada hongo se comparó con las reportadas en el banco de genes del NCBI, donde los mayores porcentajes de similitud fueron 99.6, 98.9 y 98.2 % para FO, FV y AA, respectivamente, con lo cual se confirmaron los resultados de la identificación morfológica. Este es el segundo reporte de la presencia de AA y FO asociados a la pudrición del florete de brócoli en México, y el primer reporte de FV como parte del complejo de agentes causales de esta enfermedad.

    • Losses caused by head rot of broccoli are over 40 % in Guanajuato, Mexico.
    • Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium verticillioides are the causal agents of head rot of broccoli in Mexico.
    • 83 isolates of Fusarium spp. were identified in head rot of broccoli.
    • 102 isolates of Alternaria alternata were identified in head rot of broccoli.
     

    Relationship between chlorophyll and nitrogen content, and fresh matter production in basil ‘Nufar’ (Ocimum basilicum) with three handheld chlorophyll meter readings: SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100

    Relationship between chlorophyll and nitrogen content, and fresh matter production in basil ‘Nufar’ (Ocimum basilicum) with three handheld chlorophyll meter readings: SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100

    Ronald Ernesto Ontiveros-Capurata; Porfirio Juárez-López; Rodrigo Omar Mendoza-Tafolla; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Oscar Gabriel Villegas-Torres; Dagoberto Guillén-Sánchez; Andrew D Cartmill

    Keywords: non-destructive analysis; aromatic plant, soilless culture.

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.09.018

    Received: 2021-08-07
    Accepted: 2022-07-06
    Available online: 2022-08-24
    Pages:189-202

    Determinations of nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (Chl) by destructive methods are precise but time-consuming and frequently expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 readings with the concentrations of Chl, N, and fresh matter (FM) in basil 'Nufar'. In addition, we determined the relationship of the N concentration with fresh matter (FM). The plants were irrigated with five levels of N (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mEq·L-1 of NO3) based on a modified Steiner solution for 42 days after transplant. Plants were evaluated weekly with SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 portable chlorophyll meters in the greenhouse, while fresh matter and the concentration of chlorophyll and N were determined in the laboratory using conventional techniques. The relationship between SPAD readings, Chl, N, and FM was strong, positive, linear, and significant, with correlation coefficients (R2) between 0.94 and 0.98. For atLEAF and MC-100 readings, R2 values were 0.96 to 0.99 and 0.96 to 0.99, respectively. The relationships between SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 readings were strong, positive, and significant, with R2 values of 0.98. Similar behavior was shown by the relationship of N concentration and FM with R2 of 0.88. With these results, we conclude that SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 can be used to estimate the nutrient status of N in a non-destructive, rapid and reliable manner during basil production.

  • The values of the chlorophyll meters atLEAF and MC-100 to estimate chlorophyll content, nitrogen status, and fresh matter production in basil are reported for the first time.
  • The relationship between SPAD, chlorophyll, nitrogen, and fresh matter shows R2 values between 0.88 and 0.96.
  • The regression equations of SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 readings were linearly related to chlorophyll, nitrogen, and fresh matter.
  • SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 can estimate N concentration in a non-destructive, fast and reliable manner during basil cultivation.
  • Determinations of nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (Chl) by destructive methods are precise but time-consuming and frequently expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 readings with the concentrations of Chl, N, and fresh matter (FM) in basil 'Nufar'. In addition, we determined the relationship of the N concentration with fresh matter (FM). The plants were irrigated with five levels of N (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 mEq·L-1 of NO3) based on a modified Steiner solution for 42 days after transplant. Plants were evaluated weekly with SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 portable chlorophyll meters in the greenhouse, while fresh matter and the concentration of chlorophyll and N were determined in the laboratory using conventional techniques. The relationship between SPAD readings, Chl, N, and FM was strong, positive, linear, and significant, with correlation coefficients (R2) between 0.94 and 0.98. For atLEAF and MC-100 readings, R2 values were 0.96 to 0.99 and 0.96 to 0.99, respectively. The relationships between SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 readings were strong, positive, and significant, with R2 values of 0.98. Similar behavior was shown by the relationship of N concentration and FM with R2 of 0.88. With these results, we conclude that SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 can be used to estimate the nutrient status of N in a non-destructive, rapid and reliable manner during basil production.

    • The values of the chlorophyll meters atLEAF and MC-100 to estimate chlorophyll content, nitrogen status, and fresh matter production in basil are reported for the first time.
    • The relationship between SPAD, chlorophyll, nitrogen, and fresh matter shows R2 values between 0.88 and 0.96.
    • The regression equations of SPAD, atLEAF and MC-100 readings were linearly related to chlorophyll, nitrogen, and fresh matter.
    • SPAD, atLEAF, and MC-100 can estimate N concentration in a non-destructive, fast and reliable manner during basil cultivation.
     

    GENETIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) CHF1 CULTIVAR

    Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; José D. Molina-Galán; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; J. Ortíz-Cereceres; F. Márquez-Sánchez; T. Cervantez-Santana; J.F. Santiaguillo-Hernández

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.046

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ON-FARM GENETIC DIVERSITY AND CROPPING SYSTEM OF Phaseolus vulgaris AND Vigna unguiculata AT THE CHONTALPA REGION IN TABASCO, MÉXICO

    Luz del C. Lagunes-Espinoza; F. Gallardo-López; H. Becerril-Hernández; E.D. Bolaños-Aguilar

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.047

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    PLANT PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) ANA CULTIVAR SELECTIONS AT AGUASCALIENTES

    F. Gutierrez-Acosta; José Saúl Padilla Ramírez; Luís Reyes Muro

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.05.026

    Received: 2007-05-14
    Accepted: 2007-08-06
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS AND INLFLUENCE IN THE TOMATO CROP (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL)

    E. Utria-Borges; J.A. Cabrera-Rodriguez; I.M. Reynaldo-Escobar; D. Morales-Guevara; A.M. Fernández; E. Toledo-Toledo

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.009

    Received: 2006-02-04
    Accepted: 2007-05-16
    Available online: 2016-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SAPOTE MAMEY FRUITS (Pouteria sapota), IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF MORELOS

    A. Gaona-García; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Víctor López-Martínez; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Oscar Gabriel Villegas-Torres

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.013

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    WATER DEFICIT AND CROP LOAD EFFECTS ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.014

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    NITRIC NUTRITION, AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS EFFECTS ON STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) FLAVOR

    L.A. Ojeda-Real; R. Cárdenas-Navaro; Phillipe Lobbit; O. Grageda-Cabrera; E. Valencia-Cantero; L. Macías-Rodriguez

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.015

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007/08/30
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    EFFECT OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND Bacillus subtilis ON Cucumber mosaic virus GOURD INFECTION

    E. Maldonado-Cruz; D. Ochoa-Martínez; Bertha Tlapal-Bolaños

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.010

    Received: 2007-02-12
    Accepted: 2007-08-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    RIPENING SEASON AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE GENOTYPES AT CADEREYTA, QUERETARO

    D. Mendoza-González; Ramón Álvar Martínez-Peniche; M.R. Fernández-Montes; Agustín Rumayor-Flores; E. Castillo-Castañeda

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.011

    Received: 2007-02-19
    Accepted: 2007-09-11
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDES EVALUATION FOR DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk. & Curt.) Rost. ON CANTALOUPE MELON (Cucumis melo L.)

    E. Ruíz-Sánchez; J.M. Tún-Suárez; L.L. Pinzón-López; G. Valerio-Hernández; M.J. Zavala-León

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2005.09.034

    Received: 2005-09-07
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    HARVEST DELAY IN CACTUS PEAR cv. CRISTALINA

    Jorge Alberto Zegbe-Dominguez; Jaime Mena-Covarrubias

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.016

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ‘AUTUMN BLISS’ RED RASPBERRY PHENOLOGY AT GUERRERO, CHIHUAHUA STATE, MEXICO

    Rafael Parra-Quezada; M.R. Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Jesús Guadalupe Arreola-Ávila

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.04.024

    Received: 2007-04-23
    Accepted: 2007-10-03
    Available online: 2016-07-01

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