ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 3, issue 2 July - December 1997   Creative Commons License

      
 

     Vol. 3, issue 2 July - December 1997  

 
  

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LA ECONOMIA DEL AGUA EN LAS PLANTAS

Keywords: --

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.05.038

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:5-7

 

THE ACTUAL STATUS OF CHERIMOYA CULTIVATION IN MADEIRA ISLAND

THE ACTUAL STATUS OF CHERIMOYA CULTIVATION IN MADEIRA ISLAND

Rui Emanuel De Freitas Nunes

Keywords: --

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.05.039

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:9-15

The only Anonaceae cultivated in Madeira Island since ancient times is Annona cherimola Mill. M. Grabham, that in 1887 describes how the crop was conducted, made the first documented reference on this specie in Madeira.

The only Anonaceae cultivated in Madeira Island since ancient times is Annona cherimola Mill. M. Grabham, that in 1887 describes how the crop was conducted, made the first documented reference on this specie in Madeira.

 

ROOT APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN HUSK TOMATE (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)

APLICACIÓN RADICAL DE BIOXIDO DE CARBONO EN TOMATE DE CÁSCARA (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)

S. Soldevilla-Canales; Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; Floriberto Solis-Mendoza; T. Vásquez-Rojas; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León

Keywords: Carbonated water, CO2, husk tomato, carbonic acid, root uptake

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.07.052

Received: 1997-07-03
Accepted: 1997-11-15
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:17-23

The experiment took from august to December 1995 in Chapingo, Mexico in a greenhouse where the average minimum and maximum temperatures were 12.7 and 27.8 °C respectively. The variety used was CHF1, selection 10 Different concentration of gaseous CO2 These concentration were combined with different moments in the development of the plant (seedling emergence, first flower, 10 bags per plant, first full fruit, second harvest and all the previous ones) The 24 treatments were evaluated under a complete random plot design with a factorial arrangement with 4 replictions per treatment. Fruit production increased in 52 and 48% with the addition of 300 and 1200 ppm compared to the control The number of fruit per plant, dry weigh of roots, stems, fruits and total were higher with the application of carbonated water, in particular the total dry with 1200 ppm of CO2 increased 45% compared with the control There was aiso more elongation of plants (intermode length and height to the first sympodium) and leaf are with the application of CO2 to the roots. Fruit production and dry weight in the different parts of the plant were significatively affected by the time of application of carbonated water. It was observed that the application at the time of 10 bags of fruit induced higher dry weght and in roots, stems and leaves, but the plants were obtained with 300 and 1200 ppm of CO2- during the stage of 10 bags of fruit per plant.

The experiment took from august to December 1995 in Chapingo, Mexico in a greenhouse where the average minimum and maximum temperatures were 12.7 and 27.8 °C respectively. The variety used was CHF1, selection 10 Different concentration of gaseous CO2 These concentration were combined with different moments in the development of the plant (seedling emergence, first flower, 10 bags per plant, first full fruit, second harvest and all the previous ones) The 24 treatments were evaluated under a complete random plot design with a factorial arrangement with 4 replictions per treatment. Fruit production increased in 52 and 48% with the addition of 300 and 1200 ppm compared to the control The number of fruit per plant, dry weigh of roots, stems, fruits and total were higher with the application of carbonated water, in particular the total dry with 1200 ppm of CO2 increased 45% compared with the control There was aiso more elongation of plants (intermode length and height to the first sympodium) and leaf are with the application of CO2 to the roots. Fruit production and dry weight in the different parts of the plant were significatively affected by the time of application of carbonated water. It was observed that the application at the time of 10 bags of fruit induced higher dry weght and in roots, stems and leaves, but the plants were obtained with 300 and 1200 ppm of CO2- during the stage of 10 bags of fruit per plant.

 

POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.): Effect of Harvest Time and Packing

MANEJO POSTCOSECHA EN TOMATE DE CASCARA (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.):Efecto de cortes y empaques.

W. Magaña-Benitez; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León

Keywords: -

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.01.003

Received: 1997-01-03
Accepted: 1997-08-08
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:25-29

Fruits of Husk Tomato 'Salamnca' were obtained from Nepantla, Mex.,and brougth to the Laboratory of fruit Nutrition in the Universidad Autonoma de Chapingo. Postharvest life of fruits from 3 harvest dates, and 4 types of packing were evaluated under natural conditions. A completely random experimental design with a factorial treatment arrangement 4 x 3 was used. The factors were 3 harvest dates and 4 packing materials: cardboard, polyethurene, wood and plastic sackcloth, that formed 12 treatments; and 4 replications were used giving a total of 48 experimental units (1 kg each). The average from 5 fruits per unit were obteined to determine weight loss, volume, firmness (weekly), pH, acidity, color, dry weight and calcium concentration after 21 days. The wooden boxes increased postharvest life according to the variables evaluated. The first evaluated harvest date gave the best results.

Fruits of Husk Tomato 'Salamnca' were obtained from Nepantla, Mex.,and brougth to the Laboratory of fruit Nutrition in the Universidad Autonoma de Chapingo. Postharvest life of fruits from 3 harvest dates, and 4 types of packing were evaluated under natural conditions. A completely random experimental design with a factorial treatment arrangement 4 x 3 was used. The factors were 3 harvest dates and 4 packing materials: cardboard, polyethurene, wood and plastic sackcloth, that formed 12 treatments; and 4 replications were used giving a total of 48 experimental units (1 kg each). The average from 5 fruits per unit were obteined to determine weight loss, volume, firmness (weekly), pH, acidity, color, dry weight and calcium concentration after 21 days. The wooden boxes increased postharvest life according to the variables evaluated. The first evaluated harvest date gave the best results.

 

CHARACTERIZATION AND VALORATION OF Agave tequilana Weber BAGASSE OF THE TEQUILA INDUSTRY

CARACTERIZACION Y VALORIZACION DEL BAGAZO DE Agave tequilana Weber DE LA INDUSTRIA DEL TEQUILA

Keywords: Agave tequilana, bagasse, waste utilization

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.07.054

Received: 1997-07-08
Accepted: 1997-10-09
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:31-39

The agro-industrial Agave tequilana Weber bagasse was physically and chemically characterized. The physical characteristics indicated that this residus to be composed of heterogeneus fibrous and not fibrous organic material in the form of fine partices. The chemical analysis showed a content in cellulose of 43%,lignin 15%,hemicellulose 19%,total nitrogen matter 3%,pectin 1%, tota reducting sugar 5% and ashes 6%. In accordance with this results we studied several extraction process under various operative conditions (temperature and extraction time). We have tested three procedures:1)Aqueous extraction for residual sugar separation; 2 alkaline extraction(NaOH 5%)for hemicellulose separation and ammonium oxalate. Optical microscopy photographs revealed to differentiate between this treatments. In this work the appraisal potential identified was:Alcohol, polyalcohol and organic acids production from residual sugar via biotechnology, pulp for paper industry, for growing mushroom(Pleurotus), agglomerate, activated carbon and forage complements production.

The agro-industrial Agave tequilana Weber bagasse was physically and chemically characterized. The physical characteristics indicated that this residus to be composed of heterogeneus fibrous and not fibrous organic material in the form of fine partices. The chemical analysis showed a content in cellulose of 43%,lignin 15%,hemicellulose 19%,total nitrogen matter 3%,pectin 1%, tota reducting sugar 5% and ashes 6%. In accordance with this results we studied several extraction process under various operative conditions (temperature and extraction time). We have tested three procedures:1)Aqueous extraction for residual sugar separation; 2 alkaline extraction(NaOH 5%)for hemicellulose separation and ammonium oxalate. Optical microscopy photographs revealed to differentiate between this treatments. In this work the appraisal potential identified was:Alcohol, polyalcohol and organic acids production from residual sugar via biotechnology, pulp for paper industry, for growing mushroom(Pleurotus), agglomerate, activated carbon and forage complements production.

 

THE EFFECT OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID OVER SPINES AND GLOCHIDS OF

EFECTO DEL ACIDO ACETILSALICILICO SOBRE LAS ESPINAS Y GLOQUIDIOS DE NOPAL

Cecilia Mónica Rodríguez-García; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; J.P. Cruz-Hernández

Keywords: Opuntia; hidroponia

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.02.019

Received: 1997-02-24
Accepted: 1997-12-27
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:41-44

The effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was studied on the number and length of spines and glochids on cladodes of Opuntia; hidroponia grown in the greenhouse with subirrigation on perlite as support. The ASA was either at 10-2M, injected (10-4M) or diluted in the nutrient solution (10-4M). Applications were given monthly up to a total of three; injected ASA increased number and length of spines. ASA in the nutrient solution increased number of spines and glochids and when ASA was sprayed the number of glochids was increased.

The effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was studied on the number and length of spines and glochids on cladodes of Opuntia; hidroponia grown in the greenhouse with subirrigation on perlite as support. The ASA was either at 10-2M, injected (10-4M) or diluted in the nutrient solution (10-4M). Applications were given monthly up to a total of three; injected ASA increased number and length of spines. ASA in the nutrient solution increased number of spines and glochids and when ASA was sprayed the number of glochids was increased.

 

PLUM POX VIRUS (SHARKA) IN STONE FRUIT THREES

EL VIRUS DE LA SHARKA (plum po virus) EN FRUTALES

P. Martínez-Gómez; Raúl Nieto-Ángel; F. Dicenta

Keywords: Disease, apricot, peach, plum, epidemiology, detection, control.

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.07.056

Received: 1997-07-16
Accepted: 1997-12-23
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:45-52

At present, Plum pox virus (Sharka) is one of the most important factors limiting production of Stone fruits of the Prunus genus in Europe, such as apricot, plum and peach. This disease is transmitted by insects (aphids). And in apricot trees produces malformed fruits. The more usual detection methods of the virus are; visual observation of symptoms. ELISA test, molecular hybridation (radioactive and no radioactive) and PCR techniques. On the other hand, control of this virosis may be carried out by preventive methods and. More effectively, using resistan cultivars.

At present, Plum pox virus (Sharka) is one of the most important factors limiting production of Stone fruits of the Prunus genus in Europe, such as apricot, plum and peach. This disease is transmitted by insects (aphids). And in apricot trees produces malformed fruits. The more usual detection methods of the virus are; visual observation of symptoms. ELISA test, molecular hybridation (radioactive and no radioactive) and PCR techniques. On the other hand, control of this virosis may be carried out by preventive methods and. More effectively, using resistan cultivars.

 

SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN 'DIAMANTE' PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch) TO STRESS FERTILIZATION UNDER GREENHOUSE CONTIONS IN CHAPINGO, MEXICO.

ALGUNAS RESPUESTAS FISIOLOGICAS DEL DURAZNO (Prunus persica L. Batsch) 'DIAMANTE' A ESTRES HIDRICO Y FERTILIZACION BAJO CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO EN CHAPINGO, MEXICO.

Gustavo Almaguer-Vargas; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; J. Olivares; E. A. Juárez

Keywords: Drought, nitrofoska, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration.

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.09.067

Received: 1997-09-11
Accepted: 1997-12-26
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:53-58

In order to evaluate physiological and nutrimental response in ‘Diamante’ peach leaves, in Chapingo, Mexico. Drought, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) 1.8 g-litro-1 and nitrofoska 20 g-litro-1 treatments were supplied in 1.5 year old trees in a greenhouse, ASA and nitrofoska were sprayed in June 3, 19, and July 4. Photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal resistance, mesophyl conductance and leave temperature evaluations were at one h, 24 h and 30 days after sprays (DAS). Proline, total sugars, reducing sugars, reducing nitrogen, chlorophyll a, b and total, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc were evaluated in leaves at 16 DAS. It was found that drought decreased in plants the photosynthesis, mesophyl conductance and leaf temperature at 24 h DAS than the control. Nitrofoska increased in leaves the photosynthesis than drought at one and 24 h DAS. It was found that iron was higher than other treatments. Finally flower also number increased compared to ASA, and it hadn’t different response than the control.

In order to evaluate physiological and nutrimental response in ‘Diamante’ peach leaves, in Chapingo, Mexico. Drought, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) 1.8 g-litro-1 and nitrofoska 20 g-litro-1 treatments were supplied in 1.5 year old trees in a greenhouse, ASA and nitrofoska were sprayed in June 3, 19, and July 4. Photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, stomatal resistance, mesophyl conductance and leave temperature evaluations were at one h, 24 h and 30 days after sprays (DAS). Proline, total sugars, reducing sugars, reducing nitrogen, chlorophyll a, b and total, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc were evaluated in leaves at 16 DAS. It was found that drought decreased in plants the photosynthesis, mesophyl conductance and leaf temperature at 24 h DAS than the control. Nitrofoska increased in leaves the photosynthesis than drought at one and 24 h DAS. It was found that iron was higher than other treatments. Finally flower also number increased compared to ASA, and it hadn’t different response than the control.

 

PROPAGATION METHODS OF CHERIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.)

METODOS DE PROPAGACION DEL CHIRIMOYO (Annona cherimola Mill.)

p. Castillo-Alcopar; R.B. Muñoz-Pérez; M. Rubí-Arriaga; Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo

Keywords: Annona cherimola, germination, rooting, cuttings, air layering.

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.11.074

Received: 1997-11-03
Accepted: 1997-12-15
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:59-32

Experiments on germination and rooting of shoot cuttings and air layers were realized to determine the best method for cherimoya propagation. The percentage and speed of germination depended on the genotypes. No rooting was found in the shoot cuttings evaluated (terminal and basal). A rooting maximum of 35% was found in the air layered shoots without a significant effect of the application of indole-3-butyric acid.

Experiments on germination and rooting of shoot cuttings and air layers were realized to determine the best method for cherimoya propagation. The percentage and speed of germination depended on the genotypes. No rooting was found in the shoot cuttings evaluated (terminal and basal). A rooting maximum of 35% was found in the air layered shoots without a significant effect of the application of indole-3-butyric acid.

 

CLONAL PROPAGATION OF HAWTHORN (Crataegus spp.) BY ROOT CUTTINGS

PROPAGACION CLONAL DEL TEJOCOTE (Crataegus spp.) POR ESTACAS DE RAIZ

Ma. T. Borys; A. Espinoza-Méndez; Raúl Nieto-Ángel; J. Ortega-Alcalá

Keywords: Crataegus, adventitious roots, asexual propagation.

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.07.053

Received: 1997-07-07
Accepted: 1997-08-07
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:63-70

Root cuttings 20 cm of length and of various diameters were subjected to rooting without growth regulators applied. The cuttings were taken during the dormant season and placed in rooting bed (forest organic matter: perlite = 1: 1 in volume) in the greenhouse. The cuttings originated from from trees from states of Chiapas with thorns and Mexico free of thorns, were placed in three positions, vertical (90⁰), inclined (45⁰), and horizontal (180⁰). The vertical and inclined positions gave positive results with adventitious shoots formed in 70-90% of cuttings and new roots were formed in 65-85% of cuttings of both origin. The final length of roots was superior to the final length of shoots in most of the generated plants. This methods of hawthorn propagation may be recommended for clonation of individual trees in the wid.

Root cuttings 20 cm of length and of various diameters were subjected to rooting without growth regulators applied. The cuttings were taken during the dormant season and placed in rooting bed (forest organic matter: perlite = 1: 1 in volume) in the greenhouse. The cuttings originated from from trees from states of Chiapas with thorns and Mexico free of thorns, were placed in three positions, vertical (90⁰), inclined (45⁰), and horizontal (180⁰). The vertical and inclined positions gave positive results with adventitious shoots formed in 70-90% of cuttings and new roots were formed in 65-85% of cuttings of both origin. The final length of roots was superior to the final length of shoots in most of the generated plants. This methods of hawthorn propagation may be recommended for clonation of individual trees in the wid.

 

VARIANCE COMPONENT ESTIMATION WITH S0 MALES AND S1 FEMALE LINES IN DESIGN II

ESTIMACION DE VARIANZAS GENETICAS CON MACHOS S0 Y LINEAS HEMBRAS S1 EN EL DISEÑO II

Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos

Keywords: Additive variance, dominance variance, estimator of variance components, precision of estimators, unbiased estimator.

10.5154/r.rchsh.1997.10.070

Received: 1997-10-21
Accepted: 1997-12-29
Available online: 2016-07-01
Pages:71-76

To solve the problem of the identification of the m full-sib families which can be presented when a single plant must be pollinated by m male plants according to the design II, it has been proposed to self pollinate each female parent so that each of m female S1 plants be pollinated by each one of the males. Due to the convenience of having estimates of the variance components leading to the plant breeder to the type of cultivar which best takes advantage of the genetic structure of the population or to the selection method with the highest expected genetic gain the quality of the estimators; (2) using the mean square due to males to estimate the additive variance the estimator of the modified design is more precise that the conventional design’s and (4) The modified design yields an always more precise estimator for the dominance variance.

To solve the problem of the identification of the m full-sib families which can be presented when a single plant must be pollinated by m male plants according to the design II, it has been proposed to self pollinate each female parent so that each of m female S1 plants be pollinated by each one of the males. Due to the convenience of having estimates of the variance components leading to the plant breeder to the type of cultivar which best takes advantage of the genetic structure of the population or to the selection method with the highest expected genetic gain the quality of the estimators; (2) using the mean square due to males to estimate the additive variance the estimator of the modified design is more precise that the conventional design’s and (4) The modified design yields an always more precise estimator for the dominance variance.