ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 27, issue 3 September - December 2021   Creative Commons License

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     Vol. 27, issue 3 September - December 2021  

 
  

Herbal extracts and alcohol increase vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’

Los extractos herbales y el alcohol prolongan la vida en florero de Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’

Davood Hashemabadi; Hassan Abedini Aboksari; Donya Hedayat Rad; Behzad Kaviani

Keywords: carnation, stem end blockage, water relations, vase life, enzymatic activity, secondary metabolites

10.5154/r.rchsh.2020.05.009

Received: 2020-05-14
Accepted: 2021-02-02
Available online: 2021-06-23
Pages:135-155

Some chemicals such as 8-HQS used for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers are harmful to human health. Therefore, it is necessary to identify natural compounds to delay senescence and the deterioration of cut flower tissues. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties can have a significant effect on the vase life of cut flowers. The objective was to compare the effect of essential oils (geranium [Pelargonium graveolens], caraway [Cuminum cyminum] and dill [Anethum graveolens]) against 8-HQS and alcohol on postharvest life, bacterial control and some qualitative characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’) flowers. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oils showed that the highest percentage of essences in geranium (13.03 %), caraway (26.05 %) and dill (52.23 %) were geraniol, methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal and linalool, respectively. Vase life increased to 15.43 and 15.11 days when using 100 mg·L-1 dill and 50 mg·L-1 geranium, respectively. Solution uptake (2.18 mL·g-1 FW) and the activity of catalase (1.78 μg·g-1 FW) were also highest in 100 mg·L-1 dill essential oil solution compared to distilled water (1.07 mL·g-1 FW and 0.90 μg·g-1 FW, respectively). The 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium, and 100 mg·L-1 caraway induced the longest vase life, with dill essential oil being the most suitable, effective and safest treatment.

Some chemicals such as 8-HQS used for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers are harmful to human health. Therefore, it is necessary to identify natural compounds to delay senescence and the deterioration of cut flower tissues. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties can have a significant effect on the vase life of cut flowers. The objective was to compare the effect of essential oils (geranium [Pelargonium graveolens], caraway [Cuminum cyminum] and dill [Anethum graveolens]) against 8-HQS and alcohol on postharvest life, bacterial control and some qualitative characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’) flowers. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oils showed that the highest percentage of essences in geranium (13.03 %), caraway (26.05 %) and dill (52.23 %) were geraniol, methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal and linalool, respectively. Vase life increased to 15.43 and 15.11 days when using 100 mg·L-1 dill and 50 mg·L-1 geranium, respectively. Solution uptake (2.18 mL·g-1 FW) and the activity of catalase (1.78 μg·g-1 FW) were also highest in 100 mg·L-1 dill essential oil solution compared to distilled water (1.07 mL·g-1 FW and 0.90 μg·g-1 FW, respectively). The 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium, and 100 mg·L-1 caraway induced the longest vase life, with dill essential oil being the most suitable, effective and safest treatment.

 

The use of plant growth retardants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings

Uso de retardadores de crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Norma Miguel-Zarate; Oscar Javier Ayala-Garay; Felipe Sánchez-Del Castillo; J. Jesús Magdaleno-Villar

Keywords: intensive cultivation, growth retardant, seedbed, cycle reduction, triazoles

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.01.003

Received: 2021-01-21
Accepted: 2021-03-27
Available online: 2021-06-23
Pages:157-169

An alternative tomato production system consists of establishing three short crop cycles per year and managed with a high population density (9 plants·m-2) and early blunting. For this purpose, it is necessary to extend the seedbed phase until two months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three growth retardants (Uniconazole, Paclobutrazol and Propiconazole) on the quality of DRD 8537 commercial hybrid tomato seedlings, with one or two applications (at 25 and 50 days after sowing [das]) and two doses per retardant (low and high). Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated at 31, 49 and 66 das. In addition, the leaf area, fresh weight, and dry matter content of the plants were evaluated at 66 das. The retardants affected height, diameter, fresh weight, and dry matter. The number of applications had no significant effect, and the high dose reduced height and leaf area. The retardants allowed extending seedling time on the seedbed until two months without affecting plant quality. Paclobutrazol was the retardant with the best response in terms of reducing height and leaf area, resulting in more compact seedlings.

An alternative tomato production system consists of establishing three short crop cycles per year and managed with a high population density (9 plants·m-2) and early blunting. For this purpose, it is necessary to extend the seedbed phase until two months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three growth retardants (Uniconazole, Paclobutrazol and Propiconazole) on the quality of DRD 8537 commercial hybrid tomato seedlings, with one or two applications (at 25 and 50 days after sowing [das]) and two doses per retardant (low and high). Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated at 31, 49 and 66 das. In addition, the leaf area, fresh weight, and dry matter content of the plants were evaluated at 66 das. The retardants affected height, diameter, fresh weight, and dry matter. The number of applications had no significant effect, and the high dose reduced height and leaf area. The retardants allowed extending seedling time on the seedbed until two months without affecting plant quality. Paclobutrazol was the retardant with the best response in terms of reducing height and leaf area, resulting in more compact seedlings.

 

Rice husk biochar as a substrate for growth of cucumber seedlings

Biocarbón de cascarilla de arroz como sustrato en el crecimiento de plántulas de pepino

Carlos Alberto Pérez-Cabrera; Porfirio Juárez-López; José Anzaldo-Hernández; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Salomé Gayosso-Rodríguez; Eduardo Salcedo-Pérez; Dagoberto Guillén-Sánchez; Rosendo Balois-Morales; Lourdes G. Cabrera-Chavarría

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, hydrothermal carbonization, growing media, physical and chemical properties, soilless culture

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.01.002

Received: 2021-01-10
Accepted: 2021-03-27
Available online: 2021-06-23
Pages:171-183

Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from plant residues and obtained by thermochemical techniques in an oxygen-limited environment or in the absence of it. The aim was to evaluate the physical properties of mixtures of rice husk biochar as a substrate component and their effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings. The treatments were: rice husk biochar (BC) and commercial peat moss (T; Sunshine mix 3), as well as mixtures of both in different proportions (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 %, respectively). For physical characterization, particle size, bulk density, total porosity, aeration porosity and water-holding porosity were evaluated. Additionally, nutrient concentration was determined. To evaluate the effect of biochar on cucumber seedling growth, stem length, fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, leaf area, dry weight of aerial and root biomass, and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD readings) were considered. It was found that the addition of up to 40 % BC to the universal growth medium (peat moss) does not alter the physical properties of total porosity, aeration porosity, and water-holding porosity; furthermore, the growth of cucumber seedlings in a 20 % BC mixture is similar in stem length, fresh biomass, dry biomass and leaf area to seedlings grown with 100 % peat moss.

Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from plant residues and obtained by thermochemical techniques in an oxygen-limited environment or in the absence of it. The aim was to evaluate the physical properties of mixtures of rice husk biochar as a substrate component and their effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings. The treatments were: rice husk biochar (BC) and commercial peat moss (T; Sunshine mix 3), as well as mixtures of both in different proportions (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 %, respectively). For physical characterization, particle size, bulk density, total porosity, aeration porosity and water-holding porosity were evaluated. Additionally, nutrient concentration was determined. To evaluate the effect of biochar on cucumber seedling growth, stem length, fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, leaf area, dry weight of aerial and root biomass, and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD readings) were considered. It was found that the addition of up to 40 % BC to the universal growth medium (peat moss) does not alter the physical properties of total porosity, aeration porosity, and water-holding porosity; furthermore, the growth of cucumber seedlings in a 20 % BC mixture is similar in stem length, fresh biomass, dry biomass and leaf area to seedlings grown with 100 % peat moss.

 

Study of inbreeding in tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)

Estudio de la endogamia en tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)

César Augusto Barrera-Irigoyen; Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; Natanael Magaña-Lira; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; Mario Pérez-Grajales

Keywords: inbreeding depression, mating systems, half-sib families, full-sib families

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.006

Received: 2020/03/19
Accepted: 2021/07/26
Available online: 2021-09-03
Pages:185-198

Only intervarietal and interfamilial hybridization can be carried out in tomatillo. Therefore, the objective was to study the effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo obtained through three generations of mating by fraternal and plant-to-plant crosses. The varieties studied were Tecozautla, Diamante, Manzano and Morado, each represented by three maternal half-sib families (Generation 1). In 2018, plant-to-plant and fraternal crosses were made in selected plants within each family, resulting in full-sib (FSF) and maternal half-sib (MHSF) families, respectively (Generation 2). In 2019, the process was repeated in Generation 2 families, and another generation of FSFs and MHSFs (Generation 3) was obtained. Field evaluation was conducted in 2020. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used, and yield per plant was evaluated in two harvests and total yield per plant, as well as fruit weight, volume and bulk density, in each harvest and average of harvests. Inbreeding depression occurred among generations. Fruit yield, size and volume in the first harvest decreased over generations. The Tecozautla and Diamante varieties showed greater inbreeding depression. The type of cross had a different effect depending on the variety. Fruit size was lower in plant-to-plant crosses in Tecozautla, Diamante and Morado; that is, they generated greater inbreeding depression than the fraternal crosses.

Only intervarietal and interfamilial hybridization can be carried out in tomatillo. Therefore, the objective was to study the effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo obtained through three generations of mating by fraternal and plant-to-plant crosses. The varieties studied were Tecozautla, Diamante, Manzano and Morado, each represented by three maternal half-sib families (Generation 1). In 2018, plant-to-plant and fraternal crosses were made in selected plants within each family, resulting in full-sib (FSF) and maternal half-sib (MHSF) families, respectively (Generation 2). In 2019, the process was repeated in Generation 2 families, and another generation of FSFs and MHSFs (Generation 3) was obtained. Field evaluation was conducted in 2020. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used, and yield per plant was evaluated in two harvests and total yield per plant, as well as fruit weight, volume and bulk density, in each harvest and average of harvests. Inbreeding depression occurred among generations. Fruit yield, size and volume in the first harvest decreased over generations. The Tecozautla and Diamante varieties showed greater inbreeding depression. The type of cross had a different effect depending on the variety. Fruit size was lower in plant-to-plant crosses in Tecozautla, Diamante and Morado; that is, they generated greater inbreeding depression than the fraternal crosses.

 

Lead recovery in artificially contaminated agricultural soil as a remediation strategy using sunflower and vermicompost

Recuperación de plomo en suelo agrícola contaminado artificialmente como estrategia de remediación mediante girasol y vermicompost

Guido Sarmiento-Sarmiento; Shadai Febres-Flores

Keywords: lead removal, bioconcentration, translocation, Helianthus annuus

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.04.007

Received: 2020/03/15
Accepted: 2021/08/23
Available online: 2021-09-03
Pages:199-212

Lead (Pb) contamination is an environmental problem that deteriorates the quality of agricultural soils; therefore, it is a priority to evaluate remediation strategies for its recovery. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and vermicompost in the remediation of agricultural soils artificially contaminated with Pb. The treatments studied were: T1 (soil with Pb, vermicompost and sunflower), T2 (soil with Pb and vermicompost), T3 (soil with Pb and sunflower) and T4 (soil with Pb). The initial Pb value in the soil was 16.05 ppm, and 105 ppm Pb were added by dissolving Pb(NO3)2, reaching a concentration of 121.05 ppm as the initial level, higher than the national environmental quality standard (EQS) for agricultural soils (70 ppm Pb). All treatments reduced the Pb concentration in the soil below the EQS. T2 stood out by achieving a Pb recovery of 81.21 %. The Pb bioconcentration factor (BF) in the aerial part and roots of sunflower plants (T1 and T3) registered values of less than one, acting as an exclusive plant species. According to the Pb translocation factor (TF), sunflower in the presence of vermicompost (T1) behaved as a Pb phytostabilizing plant (TF < 1), and in the absence of vermicompost (T3) it proved to be a Pb phytoextractor (TF > 1).

Lead (Pb) contamination is an environmental problem that deteriorates the quality of agricultural soils; therefore, it is a priority to evaluate remediation strategies for its recovery. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and vermicompost in the remediation of agricultural soils artificially contaminated with Pb. The treatments studied were: T1 (soil with Pb, vermicompost and sunflower), T2 (soil with Pb and vermicompost), T3 (soil with Pb and sunflower) and T4 (soil with Pb). The initial Pb value in the soil was 16.05 ppm, and 105 ppm Pb were added by dissolving Pb(NO3)2, reaching a concentration of 121.05 ppm as the initial level, higher than the national environmental quality standard (EQS) for agricultural soils (70 ppm Pb). All treatments reduced the Pb concentration in the soil below the EQS. T2 stood out by achieving a Pb recovery of 81.21 %. The Pb bioconcentration factor (BF) in the aerial part and roots of sunflower plants (T1 and T3) registered values of less than one, acting as an exclusive plant species. According to the Pb translocation factor (TF), sunflower in the presence of vermicompost (T1) behaved as a Pb phytostabilizing plant (TF < 1), and in the absence of vermicompost (T3) it proved to be a Pb phytoextractor (TF > 1).