ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 15, issue Especial - 2009   Creative Commons License

      
 

     Vol. 15, issue Especial - 2009  

 
  

EVALUATION OF QUALITY IN FRUITS OF SEVEN NATIVE TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) GENOTYPES

EVALUACIÓN DE CALIDAD EN FRUTOS DE SIETE GENOTIPOS NATIVOS DE JITOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme)

Porfirio Juárez-López; Rogelio Castro-Brindis; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Porfirio Ramírez-Vallejo; Manuel Sandoval-Villa; David Wm. Reed; Luis Cisneros-Zevallos; Stephen King

Keywords: antioxidants, lycopene, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, hydroponics, Mexico.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.043

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:5-9

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of seven genotypes native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, and JCPRV-76 were grown in hydroponics without recirculation and under greenhouse. A commercial cherry tomato hybrid was used as a control (H-790). Firmness, days at 7 % of weight loss (DWL)), pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. There were significant differences in all variables, except pH, which ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. In firmness, H-790 exceeded by 19.5 % to the native genotype which showed the highest penetration resistance (JCPRV-05). In DWL, H-790 exceeded by 20.6 % to JCPRV-10 which presented the greatest period of native genotypes. In total soluble solids, JCPRV-05 exceeded by 10 % to H-790. In acidity, JCPRV-43 exceeded by 23 % to H-790. In regard to the lycopene content, JCPRV-09 was 6.1 % higher than H-790. In β-carotene content, JCPRV-76 exceeded by 4.0 % to H-790; JCPRV-76 exceeded by 35.4 % to H-790 in ascorbic acid content. Except for firmness, pH and DPP fruit, most native evaluated genotypes exceeded to commercial hybrid (H-790) for all parameters. It was considered that these materials could be used as a source of germplasm in breeding programs of tomato in order to increase the internal quality of fruits of this specie.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fruit quality of seven genotypes native tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, and JCPRV-76 were grown in hydroponics without recirculation and under greenhouse. A commercial cherry tomato hybrid was used as a control (H-790). Firmness, days at 7 % of weight loss (DWL)), pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid content were evaluated. There were significant differences in all variables, except pH, which ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. In firmness, H-790 exceeded by 19.5 % to the native genotype which showed the highest penetration resistance (JCPRV-05). In DWL, H-790 exceeded by 20.6 % to JCPRV-10 which presented the greatest period of native genotypes. In total soluble solids, JCPRV-05 exceeded by 10 % to H-790. In acidity, JCPRV-43 exceeded by 23 % to H-790. In regard to the lycopene content, JCPRV-09 was 6.1 % higher than H-790. In β-carotene content, JCPRV-76 exceeded by 4.0 % to H-790; JCPRV-76 exceeded by 35.4 % to H-790 in ascorbic acid content. Except for firmness, pH and DPP fruit, most native evaluated genotypes exceeded to commercial hybrid (H-790) for all parameters. It was considered that these materials could be used as a source of germplasm in breeding programs of tomato in order to increase the internal quality of fruits of this specie.

 

ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES AND USE OF PULSE SOLUTIONS IN TWO ROSE (Rosa sp.) CULTIVARS

DIFERENCIAS ANATOMICAS Y USO DE SOLUCIONES DE PULSO EN DOS CULTIVARES DE ROSA (Rosa sp.)

F. Hernández-Hernandez; María de Lourdes Arévalo-Galarza; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; H. A. Zavaleta-Mancera; Jorge Valdez-Carrasco

Keywords: Grand Gala cultivar, Vega cultivar, 4-hexylresorcinol, dry period.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.044

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:11-16

The aim of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility of two roses cultivars (‘Grand Gala’ and ‘Vega’) to water stress, the flower stems were pretreated with pulse solutions (4-hexylresorcinol, putrescine and water). In the other hand the leaf and stem anatomy were studied in order to know their relation with dry period. The results showed that the 4-hexylresorcinol solution reduced water stress in both cultivars, maintaining the quality characteristics. It was observed higher susceptibility to dry period in ‘Vega’ cultivar. The number of epidermal cells and stomata index and fresh weight loss in leaves of ‘Grand Gala’ leaves were significantly higher. In both cultivars, the stomata in leaves were hypoestomatics of paracitic type.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility of two roses cultivars (‘Grand Gala’ and ‘Vega’) to water stress, the flower stems were pretreated with pulse solutions (4-hexylresorcinol, putrescine and water). In the other hand the leaf and stem anatomy were studied in order to know their relation with dry period. The results showed that the 4-hexylresorcinol solution reduced water stress in both cultivars, maintaining the quality characteristics. It was observed higher susceptibility to dry period in ‘Vega’ cultivar. The number of epidermal cells and stomata index and fresh weight loss in leaves of ‘Grand Gala’ leaves were significantly higher. In both cultivars, the stomata in leaves were hypoestomatics of paracitic type.

 

PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE Heliconia standley Macbride EN CUBA

PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE Heliconia standley Macbride EN CUBA

F. M. Sosa-Rodríguez; R. S. Ortiz; R. P. Hernández; P. M. Armas; D. S. Guillen

Keywords: micropropagation, acclimatization.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.045

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:17-23

A protocol was applied that allowed the micropropagation of the ornamental species of Heliconia standleyi Macbride. Different variants of disinfestations of plants, culture medium and explants handling were studied during the different stages of the process and finally their acclimatization. The cultivar can be propagated in liquid medium using a disinfestations with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 2 % during 20 min, cultured medium supplemented with 6-BAP (2.0 mg·litro -1), AIA (0.65 y 1.3 mg·litro-1) and explants had a size bigger than 1.0 cm in semi liquid medium. The multiplication coefficient after subculture was 4.6 explants/meristems. Optimum results in the roots production for addition in medium of AIA 1.3 mg·litro-1 were obtained. The acclimatization was satisfactory in greenhouse always the size of plants were between 3 - 5 cm and until 45 days in controlled conditions.

A protocol was applied that allowed the micropropagation of the ornamental species of Heliconia standleyi Macbride. Different variants of disinfestations of plants, culture medium and explants handling were studied during the different stages of the process and finally their acclimatization. The cultivar can be propagated in liquid medium using a disinfestations with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 2 % during 20 min, cultured medium supplemented with 6-BAP (2.0 mg·litro -1), AIA (0.65 y 1.3 mg·litro-1) and explants had a size bigger than 1.0 cm in semi liquid medium. The multiplication coefficient after subculture was 4.6 explants/meristems. Optimum results in the roots production for addition in medium of AIA 1.3 mg·litro-1 were obtained. The acclimatization was satisfactory in greenhouse always the size of plants were between 3 - 5 cm and until 45 days in controlled conditions.

 

EFFECT OF SALICILIC ACID AND DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE IN THE FLOWERING OF [Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) Kitamura] IN YUCATAN

EFECTO DEL ÁCIDO SALICÍLICO Y DIMETILSULFÓXIDO EN LA FLORACIÓN DE [Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) Kitamura] EN YUCATÁN

E. Villanueva-Couoh; G. Alcántar-González; Pastor Sánchez-García; M. Soria-Fregoso; Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra

Keywords: Chrysantemum morifolium, salicylic acid, blooming.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.046

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:25-31

With the purpose to evaluate the effect in the flowering and growth of the plant of chrysanthemum var. Polaris White several concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) 10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 10-4 M were sprinkled on chrysanthemum foliage. The salicylic acid applications to the foliage were made 16 days after the transplant. Four applications were made by dripping with an interval of seven days between each application. A completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions was used. The DMSO sprinkled plants grew more (83.6 cm) than the plants sprinkled with 10-6 M (81.0 cm) of AS and surpassed the control plant. The stem diameter of the AS and DMSO sprinkled plants was greater in comparison with the control plant, and the 10-8 M treatment obtained the greatest values (8.9 mm). The salicylic acid (10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M), and the dimethyl sulfoxide 10-4 M incremented in a significant manner the weight of the foliage and root matter (fresh and dry), the root volume, and the foliar area. The effect of the salicylic acid was notorious in the induction of the blooming treatments: 10-8 y 10-10 M were obtained the blooming at 113 PTD and it also obtained the greatest flower diameter (13.6 and 12.6 cm) respectively. The N, P and K concentrations were different and the treatments with AS and DMSO surpassed the control. The N and K concentrations in the Efecto del ácido salicílico... chrysanthemum leaves and stems fluctuated from low to deficient, but the P concentrations fluctuated between sufficient and adequate.

With the purpose to evaluate the effect in the flowering and growth of the plant of chrysanthemum var. Polaris White several concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) 10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 10-4 M were sprinkled on chrysanthemum foliage. The salicylic acid applications to the foliage were made 16 days after the transplant. Four applications were made by dripping with an interval of seven days between each application. A completely randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions was used. The DMSO sprinkled plants grew more (83.6 cm) than the plants sprinkled with 10-6 M (81.0 cm) of AS and surpassed the control plant. The stem diameter of the AS and DMSO sprinkled plants was greater in comparison with the control plant, and the 10-8 M treatment obtained the greatest values (8.9 mm). The salicylic acid (10-6, 10-8 y 10-10 M), and the dimethyl sulfoxide 10-4 M incremented in a significant manner the weight of the foliage and root matter (fresh and dry), the root volume, and the foliar area. The effect of the salicylic acid was notorious in the induction of the blooming treatments: 10-8 y 10-10 M were obtained the blooming at 113 PTD and it also obtained the greatest flower diameter (13.6 and 12.6 cm) respectively. The N, P and K concentrations were different and the treatments with AS and DMSO surpassed the control. The N and K concentrations in the Efecto del ácido salicílico... chrysanthemum leaves and stems fluctuated from low to deficient, but the P concentrations fluctuated between sufficient and adequate.

 

SOMATIC EMBRYOIDS ENCAPSULATION OF Laelia anceps ssp. dawsonii TO PRODUCE SYNTHETIC SEED

ENCAPSULACIÓN DE EMBRIONES SOMÁTICOS DE Laelia anceps ssp. dawsonii PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA SINTÉTICA

H. E. Lee-Espinosa; J. Murguía-González; A. Laguna-Cerda; B. García-Rosas; M. Gámez-Pastrana; María Elena Galindo-Tovar; I. Landero-Tórres; Lourdes Georgina Iglesias-Andreu; Nancy Santana-Buzzy

Keywords: Orchidaceae, artificial seed, somatic embryogenesis.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.047

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:33-40

Somatic embryoids obtained from germinated seeds in an MS culture media supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6, bencylaminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 2 mg·liter-1 each, were encapsulated in sodium alginate in complex with calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O) 75 mM matrix, to produce synthetic seeds, as a rescue and conservation strategy. In order to determinate the effect of physical and chemical factors, such as stored temperature and time, sodium alginate consistency, and mineral nutriments an plant growth regulators concentration on percentage and time for germination, and the viability of the synthetic seeds, different concentrations of: sodium alginate (2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 %), MS salts (37.5, 50 and 100 %) and BAP (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg·liter-1) added to the encapsulation matrix, were tested at different temperatures (4, 20 and 25 °C) and incubation times (15 and 30 days). A hundred percent germination of synthetic seeds was obtained when 3 % sodium alginate in complex with CaCl2·2H2O at 75 mM was used; MS salts at 100 and 50 % and 2.0 mg·liter-1 BAP supplemented to the encapsulation matrix, achieved 64.54 y 62.77 % germination rate, respectively. No meaningful difference was observed between concentrations.

Somatic embryoids obtained from germinated seeds in an MS culture media supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6, bencylaminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 2 mg·liter-1 each, were encapsulated in sodium alginate in complex with calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O) 75 mM matrix, to produce synthetic seeds, as a rescue and conservation strategy. In order to determinate the effect of physical and chemical factors, such as stored temperature and time, sodium alginate consistency, and mineral nutriments an plant growth regulators concentration on percentage and time for germination, and the viability of the synthetic seeds, different concentrations of: sodium alginate (2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 %), MS salts (37.5, 50 and 100 %) and BAP (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg·liter-1) added to the encapsulation matrix, were tested at different temperatures (4, 20 and 25 °C) and incubation times (15 and 30 days). A hundred percent germination of synthetic seeds was obtained when 3 % sodium alginate in complex with CaCl2·2H2O at 75 mM was used; MS salts at 100 and 50 % and 2.0 mg·liter-1 BAP supplemented to the encapsulation matrix, achieved 64.54 y 62.77 % germination rate, respectively. No meaningful difference was observed between concentrations.

 

INOCULATION RESPONSES WITH BENEFICAL MICROORGANISMS IN GERBERA TAKING INTO ACCOUNT RIZOSPHERA CARACTERIZATION

IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ALGUNAS ESPECIES DE MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS EN LA RIZOSFERA DE GERBERA Y SU EFECTO EN LA PRODUCTIVIDAD

M. R. Soroa-Bell; A. Hernández-Fernández; F. Soto-Carreño; E. Terry-Alfonso

Keywords: Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus, mycorryzal fungus, promoting growth plant bacterial, biofertilization, rhizosphere and microorganisms

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.048

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:41-48

We identify the mycorrizal fungi (HMA) species living in the rhizosphere of Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus and the plant growth promoting bacterial (PGBP) genera attracted by those radical exudates. The chemoattraction of some plant growth promoting bacterial toward root exudates of this crop was also evaluated. The espermospher model was used for bacterial isolation and Collector tubes and the chemotaxis camera modified for the evaluation of the chemotactic effect of those radical exudates. To the bacterial characterization, was carried out micromorphological determinations (mobility, endosporas presence and others) and cultural determinations (forms, size, opacity and others). Five replications per treatment were used three times. Five micorrizal fungi species and four plant growth promoting bacterial genera attracted by gerbera radical exudates were found, almost Glomus genus were predominant, being Glomus hoi like specie the principal one. Pseudomonas (30 %) was the predominant genus among bacterials. Taking into account these results, adult plants were established in recipients of five litres of capacity, were inoculated using red ferralitic soil mixed with cow dung in a proportion of 2:1. The evaluated variables were yield and floral capitulum diameter and root colonization, finding that inoculated plants with Glomus hoi like had more root occupation (1.91 %), more mycorrizal fungus espores (5.6 espores·ml-1) and bacterial (8.2 log UFC·ml-1) in the rhizosphere and more flowers (35).

We identify the mycorrizal fungi (HMA) species living in the rhizosphere of Gerbera jamesonii cv. Bolus and the plant growth promoting bacterial (PGBP) genera attracted by those radical exudates. The chemoattraction of some plant growth promoting bacterial toward root exudates of this crop was also evaluated. The espermospher model was used for bacterial isolation and Collector tubes and the chemotaxis camera modified for the evaluation of the chemotactic effect of those radical exudates. To the bacterial characterization, was carried out micromorphological determinations (mobility, endosporas presence and others) and cultural determinations (forms, size, opacity and others). Five replications per treatment were used three times. Five micorrizal fungi species and four plant growth promoting bacterial genera attracted by gerbera radical exudates were found, almost Glomus genus were predominant, being Glomus hoi like specie the principal one. Pseudomonas (30 %) was the predominant genus among bacterials. Taking into account these results, adult plants were established in recipients of five litres of capacity, were inoculated using red ferralitic soil mixed with cow dung in a proportion of 2:1. The evaluated variables were yield and floral capitulum diameter and root colonization, finding that inoculated plants with Glomus hoi like had more root occupation (1.91 %), more mycorrizal fungus espores (5.6 espores·ml-1) and bacterial (8.2 log UFC·ml-1) in the rhizosphere and more flowers (35).

 

PUBLIC PERCEPTION TOWARDS HERBACEOUS PLANTING SCHEMES

PERCEPCIÓN DEL PÚBLICO HACIA PLANTACIONES DE HERBÁCEAS ORNAMENTALES

J. Cruz García-Albarado; N. Dunnett

Keywords: landscaping, garden, wild, colour, public park, landscape preference.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.049

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:49-55

Studies in environmental psychology in North America and Western Europe suggest that people of the city tend to value the contact with nature. An ecological style, naturalistic approach, might be an appropriate alternative because it promotes the minimal use of inputs in the establishment and management of planting schemes (substrates, fertilizers) it consideres species adapted to the site and it promotes widespread acceptance amoungst users. However, there is evidence of a difference in perception towards these alternatives according to age and gender of the public. Therefore this research aimed to study the perceptions of users (n = 300) according to these variables into ecological and formal herbaceous plantings, both located in the main entrance of Endcliffe Park in Sheffield, UK. Thus, the professional landscape designers could consider these principles to design more sustainable plantatings with a more “democratic” sense. This could be done by considering the positive aspects of both plantings. The evaluation was done by questionnaire in site. The results indicated more positive attitudes towards the ecological planting by women and users between 31 and 60 years of age. By contrast, formal plantings were perceived more positively by men and the group of 18 to 30 and up to 61 years of age. The differences found in men and women and age may be due to cultural factors or evolutionary theories. Through this study there were found positive aspects that could let to promote more sustainable planting schemes with greater acceptance by the laid public.

Studies in environmental psychology in North America and Western Europe suggest that people of the city tend to value the contact with nature. An ecological style, naturalistic approach, might be an appropriate alternative because it promotes the minimal use of inputs in the establishment and management of planting schemes (substrates, fertilizers) it consideres species adapted to the site and it promotes widespread acceptance amoungst users. However, there is evidence of a difference in perception towards these alternatives according to age and gender of the public. Therefore this research aimed to study the perceptions of users (n = 300) according to these variables into ecological and formal herbaceous plantings, both located in the main entrance of Endcliffe Park in Sheffield, UK. Thus, the professional landscape designers could consider these principles to design more sustainable plantatings with a more “democratic” sense. This could be done by considering the positive aspects of both plantings. The evaluation was done by questionnaire in site. The results indicated more positive attitudes towards the ecological planting by women and users between 31 and 60 years of age. By contrast, formal plantings were perceived more positively by men and the group of 18 to 30 and up to 61 years of age. The differences found in men and women and age may be due to cultural factors or evolutionary theories. Through this study there were found positive aspects that could let to promote more sustainable planting schemes with greater acceptance by the laid public.

 

DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY OF INFLORESCENCES OF Antirrhinum majus L. PRODUCED IN FIELD CONDITIONS

DESARROLLO Y CALIDAD DE INFLORESCENCIAS DE Antirrhinum majus L. CULTIVADOS EN INTEMPERIE

J. A. Reyes-Montero; J. A. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; E. García-Villanueva; José Alfredo Carrillo-Salazar; J. M. E. Aguilar-Luna; E. A. Gaytán-Acuña

Keywords: Series Potomac, series Rocket, radiation use efficiency, day-degree, biomass.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.050

Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online:
Pages:57-65

The flower production of Antirrhinum majus L. (“snapdragon”) is commonly carried out in greenhouse conditions using traditional cultivars. In the present paper we shown that it is possible the production of A. majus L. in the field conditions of the east of the State of Mexico municipality of Texcoco with commercial quality. In order to know that, it was designed an experiment in which: the 1) epoch or date of cultivation: autumn-winter 2006 and spring-summer 2007 and 2) four cultivars of A. majus L.: ‘Plumblossom’ and ‘Orange’ Potomac series and ‘Bronze’ and ‘Red’ Rocket series; were the two factors of an experimental design of randomized blocks. The population density was 80 plants·m-2. The cultivars of the Potomac series in the cycle autumn-winter need less accumulation of development day degrees (1,254 °C·día-1) to reach the commercial maturity than the series Rocket (1,727 °C·día-1). Therefore, they were more efficient in the use of the radiation than the series Rocket (0.61g biomasa·MJ-1 and 0.36 g biomasa·MJ-1 respectively). The cultivars of the Potomac series obtained greater fresh biomass (137 g), length of stem (100 cm) and quality index (1.35 g·cm-1). In addition, 70 % of the stems of its cultivars ‘Plumblossom’ and ‘Orange’ were of “special” quality, the highest one for this species. The behavior of the cultivars of both series was similar in the cycle spring-summer. Although in autumn-winter the dry biomass accumulated, Desarrollo y calidad de... the leaf number and the days to crop were smaller. It is concluded that the cultivars of the series Potomac reached better development in both cycles of cultivation, and produced inflorescences with greater commercial quality that the cultivars of the series Rocket. Therefore, they would be cultivated in similar field conditions to present study.

The flower production of Antirrhinum majus L. (“snapdragon”) is commonly carried out in greenhouse conditions using traditional cultivars. In the present paper we shown that it is possible the production of A. majus L. in the field conditions of the east of the State of Mexico municipality of Texcoco with commercial quality. In order to know that, it was designed an experiment in which: the 1) epoch or date of cultivation: autumn-winter 2006 and spring-summer 2007 and 2) four cultivars of A. majus L.: ‘Plumblossom’ and ‘Orange’ Potomac series and ‘Bronze’ and ‘Red’ Rocket series; were the two factors of an experimental design of randomized blocks. The population density was 80 plants·m-2. The cultivars of the Potomac series in the cycle autumn-winter need less accumulation of development day degrees (1,254 °C·día-1) to reach the commercial maturity than the series Rocket (1,727 °C·día-1). Therefore, they were more efficient in the use of the radiation than the series Rocket (0.61g biomasa·MJ-1 and 0.36 g biomasa·MJ-1 respectively). The cultivars of the Potomac series obtained greater fresh biomass (137 g), length of stem (100 cm) and quality index (1.35 g·cm-1). In addition, 70 % of the stems of its cultivars ‘Plumblossom’ and ‘Orange’ were of “special” quality, the highest one for this species. The behavior of the cultivars of both series was similar in the cycle spring-summer. Although in autumn-winter the dry biomass accumulated, Desarrollo y calidad de... the leaf number and the days to crop were smaller. It is concluded that the cultivars of the series Potomac reached better development in both cycles of cultivation, and produced inflorescences with greater commercial quality that the cultivars of the series Rocket. Therefore, they would be cultivated in similar field conditions to present study.