ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 28, issue 2 Mayo/Agosto - 2022   Creative Commons License

      
 

     Vol. 28, issue 2 Mayo/Agosto - 2022  

 
  

Drying temperatures of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) seeds

Temperaturas de secado de semillas de tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm)

Keywords: germination, vigor, thermal damage, germination speed, storage

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.06.013

Received: 2021-06-08
Accepted: 2022-01-05
Available online: 2022-05-03
Pages:79-92

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) is widely grown in Mexico with non-certified seed.Little research has been done on seed drying and physiology. Seed drying is a fundamental process in production technology, and the temperature used can affect its quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different drying temperatures on the physical and physiological quality of seeds of four varieties (Tecozautla 04, Diamante, Gema and Manzano Tepetlixpa) in three storage periods. Seeds of each variety were dried in an oven until reaching constant weight at different temperatures: ambient, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C; subsequently, they were stored under ambient laboratory conditions for 0, 2 and 4 months. The experimental unit was 5 g of seeds. The study was carried out under a completely randomized experimental design with four replications. Physiological quality was evaluated with standard germination tests, and with the vigor test the germination speed index, total seedling length and seedling dry weight were determined. Seed quality was affected by temperature. When drying from 30 to 35 °C, the seeds expressed their maximum physiological quality, and above 45 °C their quality decreased. Tecozautla 04 had the greatest vigor, whereas Diamante had the least vigor and was the most sensitive to damage during the drying process. After two months of storage, the seeds showed the best physiological quality.

Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) is widely grown in Mexico with non-certified seed.Little research has been done on seed drying and physiology. Seed drying is a fundamental process in production technology, and the temperature used can affect its quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different drying temperatures on the physical and physiological quality of seeds of four varieties (Tecozautla 04, Diamante, Gema and Manzano Tepetlixpa) in three storage periods. Seeds of each variety were dried in an oven until reaching constant weight at different temperatures: ambient, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C; subsequently, they were stored under ambient laboratory conditions for 0, 2 and 4 months. The experimental unit was 5 g of seeds. The study was carried out under a completely randomized experimental design with four replications. Physiological quality was evaluated with standard germination tests, and with the vigor test the germination speed index, total seedling length and seedling dry weight were determined. Seed quality was affected by temperature. When drying from 30 to 35 °C, the seeds expressed their maximum physiological quality, and above 45 °C their quality decreased. Tecozautla 04 had the greatest vigor, whereas Diamante had the least vigor and was the most sensitive to damage during the drying process. After two months of storage, the seeds showed the best physiological quality.

 

Morphological characterization of seed-donor Creole avocado trees from three areas in Colombia

Caracterización morfológica de aguacates criollos donadores de semilla de tres zonas en Colombia

Keywords: Persea americana Mill., West Indian avocado, genetic variability, IPGRI descriptors.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.06.010

Received: 2021-05-25
Accepted: 2022-01-05
Available online: 2022-05-03
Pages:93-108

Avocado plant propagation in Colombia is done by grafting commercial materials, such as ‘Hass’, ‘Lorena’, ‘Choquette’, ‘Fuerte’, ‘Reed’, and ‘Trinidad’, among others, onto rootstocks produced from sexual seed from Creole and ‘Hass’ trees. These seeds can be obtained in local markets or in avocado-producing areas located in contrasting agroecological regions without well-defined selection criteria. This work aimed to characterize the morphological variability of 80 seed-donor avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees for rootstock production in three producing areas of Colombia. Thirty-nine morphological descriptors were evaluated for characterization, including qualitative and quantitative characters of plants, leaves, fruits and seeds. Multiple factorial analysis detected high morphological variability in fruit and seed characteristics in the three avocado-producing zones, while cluster analysis allowed the identification of three fully formed groups, so it was not possible to discriminate groups of trees by area of origin. With the results obtained, it was possible to determine a wide phenotypic divergence in the analyzed seed-donor trees, where 80 % of them presented outstanding physical characteristics of seeds for rootstock production. Persea americana Mill., West Indian avocado, genetic variability, IPGRI descriptors.

Avocado plant propagation in Colombia is done by grafting commercial materials, such as ‘Hass’, ‘Lorena’, ‘Choquette’, ‘Fuerte’, ‘Reed’, and ‘Trinidad’, among others, onto rootstocks produced from sexual seed from Creole and ‘Hass’ trees. These seeds can be obtained in local markets or in avocado-producing areas located in contrasting agroecological regions without well-defined selection criteria. This work aimed to characterize the morphological variability of 80 seed-donor avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees for rootstock production in three producing areas of Colombia. Thirty-nine morphological descriptors were evaluated for characterization, including qualitative and quantitative characters of plants, leaves, fruits and seeds. Multiple factorial analysis detected high morphological variability in fruit and seed characteristics in the three avocado-producing zones, while cluster analysis allowed the identification of three fully formed groups, so it was not possible to discriminate groups of trees by area of origin. With the results obtained, it was possible to determine a wide phenotypic divergence in the analyzed seed-donor trees, where 80 % of them presented outstanding physical characteristics of seeds for rootstock production. Persea americana Mill., West Indian avocado, genetic variability, IPGRI descriptors.