Heliconias are grown for production of cut flowers, potted plants and indoor landscapes; however, they are affected by inadequate fertilization and poor water supply. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect produced by foliar and soil fertilization with biol, soil chemical fertilization and application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) on the growth of heliconia. A randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement (A x B x C) and four replicates was used: A) application of biol to the soil (20 mL∙plant-1), chemical fertilization (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 [N, P and K]), without application (control) and chemical fertilization + biol (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 + 20 mL∙plant-1, respectively); B) with and without the application of foliar biol (17 mL∙plant-1) and C) with and without application of SAP (2 g∙plant-1). During 180 days of evaluation, variables measured were: plant height, vigor, color, number of leaves, health, leaf area and number of shoots. The best treatments were chemical fertilization and the biol + chemical fertilizer combination. The interaction of these treatments showed the best values in plant height, health, number of leaves, leaf area, vigor and color. The chemical fertilization and biol + chemical fertilizer with SAP application treatments showed statistical differences in number of leaves, leaf area and vigor. Biol use showed significant differences, so it is suggested as a complement in heliconia fertilization. In addition, the use of substrates with a high level of organic matter is recommended as an alternative for water retention.