ISSN e:2007-4034 / ISSN print: 2007-4034

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     Vol. 23, issue 1 January - April 2017   Creative Commons License

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     Vol. 23, issue 1 January - April 2017  

 
  

Mexican plums (Spondias spp.): their current distribution and potential distribution under climate change scenarios for Mexico

Ciruelas mexicanas (Spondias spp.): su aptitud actual y potencial con escenarios de cambio climático para México

Antonio Rafael Arce-Romero; Alejandro Ismael Monterroso-Rivas; Jesús David Gómez-Díaz; Artemio Cruz-León

Keywords: Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, ecological niche, potential distribution

10.5154/r.rchsh.2016.06.020

Received: 2016-06-06
Accepted: 2016-10-04
Available online: 2016-12-23
Pages:5-19

Las ciruelas (Spondias spp.) son especies nativas de México con ventajas adaptativas, nutrimentales y etnobotánicas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la distribución actual y potencial de dos especies de ciruela mexicana: Spondias purpurea L. y Spondias mombin L. El método aplicado fue el modelado de nicho ecológico en el software Maxent, mismo que ha sido usado en México con buenos resultados. En trabajo de campo se recopiló información sobre la presencia de dichas especies en el país. Asimismo, se generaron variables ambientales de importancia biogeográfica, todas con cobertura nacional. Los escenarios de cambio climático aplicados fueron al horizonte lejano (2075-2099) considerando los modelos GFDL_CM3, HADGEM2_ES, Ensamble REA y todos bajo escenarios RCP 8.5 W∙m-2. Los modelos de distribución se validaron mediante cuatro índices de concordancia. Los factores ambientales más importantes para el modelado de Spondias spp. fueron oscilación térmica, bajas temperaturas y precipitación en algunos meses del año. En el escenario base se encontró aptitud para las ciruelas en 3.8 y 6.6 % del territorio nacional para S. purpurea y S. mombin, respectivamente. Con escenarios de cambio climático a nivel nacional, S. mombin registró 13.3 % de disminución en las zonas aptas; mientras que S. purpurea reportó 5.7 % menos superficie apta para crecer.

Las ciruelas (Spondias spp.) son especies nativas de México con ventajas adaptativas, nutrimentales y etnobotánicas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la distribución actual y potencial de dos especies de ciruela mexicana: Spondias purpurea L. y Spondias mombin L. El método aplicado fue el modelado de nicho ecológico en el software Maxent, mismo que ha sido usado en México con buenos resultados. En trabajo de campo se recopiló información sobre la presencia de dichas especies en el país. Asimismo, se generaron variables ambientales de importancia biogeográfica, todas con cobertura nacional. Los escenarios de cambio climático aplicados fueron al horizonte lejano (2075-2099) considerando los modelos GFDL_CM3, HADGEM2_ES, Ensamble REA y todos bajo escenarios RCP 8.5 W∙m-2. Los modelos de distribución se validaron mediante cuatro índices de concordancia. Los factores ambientales más importantes para el modelado de Spondias spp. fueron oscilación térmica, bajas temperaturas y precipitación en algunos meses del año. En el escenario base se encontró aptitud para las ciruelas en 3.8 y 6.6 % del territorio nacional para S. purpurea y S. mombin, respectivamente. Con escenarios de cambio climático a nivel nacional, S. mombin registró 13.3 % de disminución en las zonas aptas; mientras que S. purpurea reportó 5.7 % menos superficie apta para crecer.

 

Prediction of fruit yield and firmness of tomato hybrids with BLUP and RR-BLUP using ISSR molecular mark

Predicción de rendimiento y firmeza de fruto de híbridos de tomate con BLUP y RR-BLUP mediante marcadores moleculares ISSR

Lucas Hernández-Ibáñez; Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; Margarita Gisela Peña-Ortega

Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum L., best linear unbiased prediction, ridge regression BLUP, fruit yield components

10.5154/r.rchsh.2016.06.021

Received: 2016-06-22
Accepted: 2016-10-11
Available online: 2016-12-23
Pages:21-33

In the development of tomato hybrids, a large number of parental lines involves an excessively high number of possible hybrids, making their formation and evaluation problematic. The magnitude of this can be reduced to manageable levels with the use of hybrid performance prediction methods. In this study we compared two methods based on genomic fingerprints, mixed model theory and the experimental evaluation of a sample of hybrids: 1) best linear unbiased prediction or BLUP and 2) ridge regression BLUP. Thirty-six single crosses were performed with the objective of determining the number, firmness and total and commercial yield of fruits. With 1,000 size-independent random samples, n = 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30, the behavior of the remaining 36-n hybrids was predicted. The correlation coefficients between predicted and observed values ranged between 0.25 and 0.83. BLUP consistently recorded the highest values. In both prediction methods when n increased the magnitude of the correlations also increased.

In the development of tomato hybrids, a large number of parental lines involves an excessively high number of possible hybrids, making their formation and evaluation problematic. The magnitude of this can be reduced to manageable levels with the use of hybrid performance prediction methods. In this study we compared two methods based on genomic fingerprints, mixed model theory and the experimental evaluation of a sample of hybrids: 1) best linear unbiased prediction or BLUP and 2) ridge regression BLUP. Thirty-six single crosses were performed with the objective of determining the number, firmness and total and commercial yield of fruits. With 1,000 size-independent random samples, n = 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30, the behavior of the remaining 36-n hybrids was predicted. The correlation coefficients between predicted and observed values ranged between 0.25 and 0.83. BLUP consistently recorded the highest values. In both prediction methods when n increased the magnitude of the correlations also increased.

 

Application of biol, inorganic fertilizer and superabsorbent polymers in the growth of heliconia (Heliconia psittacorum cv. Tropica)

Aplicación de biol, fertilizante inorgánico y polímeros superabsorbentes en el crecimiento de heliconia (Heliconia psittacorum cv. Tropica)

Ariadna Linares-Gabriel; Catalino Jorge López-Collado; Carlos Alberto Tinoco-Alfaro; Joel Velasco-Velasco; Gustavo López-Romero

Keywords: tropical ornamental, fermented liquid fertilizer, fertilization, nutrition

10.5154/r.rchsh.2016.02.004

Received: 2016-02-17
Accepted: 2016-11-03
Available online: 2016-12-23
Pages:35-48

Heliconias are grown for production of cut flowers, potted plants and indoor landscapes; however, they are affected by inadequate fertilization and poor water supply. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect produced by foliar and soil fertilization with biol, soil chemical fertilization and application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) on the growth of heliconia. A randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement (A x B x C) and four replicates was used: A) application of biol to the soil (20 mL∙plant-1), chemical fertilization (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 [N, P and K]), without application (control) and       chemical fertilization + biol (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 + 20 mL∙plant-1, respectively); B) with and without the application of foliar biol (17 mL∙plant-1) and C) with and without application of SAP (2 g∙plant-1). During 180 days of evaluation, variables measured were: plant height, vigor, color, number of leaves, health, leaf area and number of shoots. The best treatments were chemical fertilization and the biol + chemical fertilizer combination. The interaction of these treatments showed the best values in plant height, health, number of leaves, leaf area, vigor and color. The chemical fertilization and biol + chemical fertilizer with SAP application treatments showed statistical differences in  number of leaves, leaf area and vigor. Biol use showed significant differences, so it is suggested as a complement in heliconia fertilization. In addition, the use of substrates with a high level of organic matter is recommended as an alternative for water retention.

Heliconias are grown for production of cut flowers, potted plants and indoor landscapes; however, they are affected by inadequate fertilization and poor water supply. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect produced by foliar and soil fertilization with biol, soil chemical fertilization and application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) on the growth of heliconia. A randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement (A x B x C) and four replicates was used: A) application of biol to the soil (20 mL∙plant-1), chemical fertilization (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 [N, P and K]), without application (control) and       chemical fertilization + biol (5 g∙plant-1 of 17-17-17 + 20 mL∙plant-1, respectively); B) with and without the application of foliar biol (17 mL∙plant-1) and C) with and without application of SAP (2 g∙plant-1). During 180 days of evaluation, variables measured were: plant height, vigor, color, number of leaves, health, leaf area and number of shoots. The best treatments were chemical fertilization and the biol + chemical fertilizer combination. The interaction of these treatments showed the best values in plant height, health, number of leaves, leaf area, vigor and color. The chemical fertilization and biol + chemical fertilizer with SAP application treatments showed statistical differences in  number of leaves, leaf area and vigor. Biol use showed significant differences, so it is suggested as a complement in heliconia fertilization. In addition, the use of substrates with a high level of organic matter is recommended as an alternative for water retention.

 

Influence of rootstock on postharvest watermelon quality

Influencia del portainjerto en la calidad poscosecha de sandía

Ángel Manuel Suárez-Hernández; Onécimo Grimaldo-Juarez; Alejandro Manelik García-López; Daniel González-Mendoza; María Victoria Huitrón-Ramírez

Keywords: Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, grafting, storage.

10.5154/r.rchsh.2016.06.019

Received: 2016-06-09
Accepted: 2016-11-23
Available online: 2016-12-23
Pages:49-58

The cultivation of grafted watermelon has spread to different parts of the world in order to improve production under adverse conditions; however, this technique may alter the quality of the fruit. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of eight rootstocks, six native Lagenaria siceraria varieties (L43, L46, L48, L50, L54 and L56) and two commercial squash varieties (Super shintosa and TZ 148), in addition to the control plant (without grafting), on the postharvest quality of watermelon variety Tri-X 313. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement and three replicates per treatment. The evaluated variables were fruit weight, firmness, total soluble solids and pulp color. The post-harvest quality of the fruits was not modified by grafting; however, it increased fruit weight by 44 %, except for L50. Pulp firmness was favored 29 % with Super shintosa. The °Brix increased 7 % with L54 and L56. Pulp color was slightly affected with Lagenaria by presenting a lower-intensity red color. The quality of the fruits, during the 14 days of storage, changed in firmness, °Brix and pulp color. The L43, L46 and L48 rootstocks were identified as the most promising to reduce weight loss, retain firmness and maintain pulp color. On the other hand, L54 and L56 promoted °Brix content, but slightly diminished pulp color.

The cultivation of grafted watermelon has spread to different parts of the world in order to improve production under adverse conditions; however, this technique may alter the quality of the fruit. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of eight rootstocks, six native Lagenaria siceraria varieties (L43, L46, L48, L50, L54 and L56) and two commercial squash varieties (Super shintosa and TZ 148), in addition to the control plant (without grafting), on the postharvest quality of watermelon variety Tri-X 313. The experimental design was completely randomized with a factorial arrangement and three replicates per treatment. The evaluated variables were fruit weight, firmness, total soluble solids and pulp color. The post-harvest quality of the fruits was not modified by grafting; however, it increased fruit weight by 44 %, except for L50. Pulp firmness was favored 29 % with Super shintosa. The °Brix increased 7 % with L54 and L56. Pulp color was slightly affected with Lagenaria by presenting a lower-intensity red color. The quality of the fruits, during the 14 days of storage, changed in firmness, °Brix and pulp color. The L43, L46 and L48 rootstocks were identified as the most promising to reduce weight loss, retain firmness and maintain pulp color. On the other hand, L54 and L56 promoted °Brix content, but slightly diminished pulp color.

 

Potential for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) single crosses to improve ethanol production

Potencial de cruzas simples de camote (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) para mejorar la producción de etanol

Aline Torquato-Tavares; Ildon Rodrigues-do Nascimento; Irais Dolores Pascual-Reyes; Wesley Rosa-de Santana; Márcio Antônio da Silveira

Keywords: directed crosses, genotypes, ethanol, dry matter

10.5154/r.rchsh.2016.05.013

Received: 2016-05-16
Accepted: 2016-12-17
Available online: 2016-12-23
Pages:59-74

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important agroenergy source for producing ethanol, which is mainly made from renewable sources through the conversion of mono- and disaccharides (sugarcane, beet, corn, wheat, sweet potato, cassava, etc.). The aim of this research was to obtain new sweet potato genotypes with high potential for ethanol production from simple crosses to be used as commercial varieties. For this, crosses were made from selected parents with high root yield and dry matter content. A hundred single crosses were evaluated in two environments using an experimental lattice design with three replicates. It was observed that the use of single crosses is an effective strategy for exploiting sweet potato variability. Of the 73 hybrids evaluated, eight exceeded the best cultivars used as controls. The crosses BDI#57, BDI#73, BDI#52 and the cultivar Duda, with ethanol yields of 9.45, 10.37, 10.85 and 11.24 m3∙h-1, respectively, were the best in root production; in addition, they had a low incidence of soil insect attack, so they represent a good alternative for the cultivation of sweet potato intended for the ethanol-producing industry.

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important agroenergy source for producing ethanol, which is mainly made from renewable sources through the conversion of mono- and disaccharides (sugarcane, beet, corn, wheat, sweet potato, cassava, etc.). The aim of this research was to obtain new sweet potato genotypes with high potential for ethanol production from simple crosses to be used as commercial varieties. For this, crosses were made from selected parents with high root yield and dry matter content. A hundred single crosses were evaluated in two environments using an experimental lattice design with three replicates. It was observed that the use of single crosses is an effective strategy for exploiting sweet potato variability. Of the 73 hybrids evaluated, eight exceeded the best cultivars used as controls. The crosses BDI#57, BDI#73, BDI#52 and the cultivar Duda, with ethanol yields of 9.45, 10.37, 10.85 and 11.24 m3∙h-1, respectively, were the best in root production; in addition, they had a low incidence of soil insect attack, so they represent a good alternative for the cultivation of sweet potato intended for the ethanol-producing industry.