ISSN e: 2007-4026 / ISSN print:2007-3925

       

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

    Volume 13, Issue 1 January - June 2021   Creative Commons License

        Cover and credits
 

    13 January - June 2021  

 
  
 
 
  • Preservative postharvest solutions in two varieties of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) native to Mexico: ‘Mexicano’ and ‘Perla’

  • Soluciones conservadoras en poscosecha en dos variedades de nardo (Polianthes tuberosa L.) nativas de México: ‘Mexicano’ y ‘Perla’

Fernando-Santos Fernando-Santos; Gloria Alicia Pérez-Arias; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Clara Pelayo-Zaldívar; Víctor López-Martínez; Porfirio Juárez-López; Dagoberto Sánchez-Guillén

water consumption, relative fresh weight, quality, respiration, superoxide dismutase

10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.04.025

Received: 2020-04-19
Accepted: 2020-11-13
Available online: 2021-01-21
Pages:03-15

Introduction: ‘Perla’ and ‘Mexicano’ are varieties of tuberose grown in Mexico that have potential for commercialization and export; however, no preservative solutions have been evaluated to increase their shelf life.
Objective: To determine physical, physiological, and chemical changes that occur in postharvest tuberose when different preservative solutions are applied.
Methodology: Tuberose flower spikes of varieties ‘Mexicano’ and Perla, with two open basal flowers, were placed in preservative solutions (Crystal®, sucrose [Sac] + citric acid [CA] + hydroxyquinoline citrate [HQC] and ascorbic acid [AAsc]). A group of tuberose flower spikes was kept as control, and in all cases destructive and non-destructive variables were evaluated during postharvest.
Results: Relative fresh weight and water consumption increased with preservative solutions in both varieties. The appearance of the ‘Perla’ variety was excellent for 5 days with Crystal®. The ‘Mexicano’ variety had more open flowers with Crystal® and Sac + AC + HQC, while the ‘Perla’ variety had the same result with AAsc and Crystal®. Respiration in the Mexicano’ variety was high with Sac + AC + HQC, and in the case of ‘Perla’ variety, respiration was low with AAsc. The highest specific superoxide dismutase activity was detected with AAsc and Crystal® for ‘Perla’ variety.
Study limitations: The results are valid without previous applications of pulse or hydrating solutions in tuberose varieties evaluated.
Originality: This is the first study where the postharvest behavior of two Mexican tuberose varieties is evaluated in preservative solutions.
Conclusions: ‘Mexicano’ and ‘Perla’ varieties can use Crystal® and AAsc solutions to maintain the quality for longer time in vase.

Introduction: ‘Perla’ and ‘Mexicano’ are varieties of tuberose grown in Mexico that have potential for commercialization and export; however, no preservative solutions have been evaluated to increase their shelf life.
Objective: To determine physical, physiological, and chemical changes that occur in postharvest tuberose when different preservative solutions are applied.
Methodology: Tuberose flower spikes of varieties ‘Mexicano’ and Perla, with two open basal flowers, were placed in preservative solutions (Crystal®, sucrose [Sac] + citric acid [CA] + hydroxyquinoline citrate [HQC] and ascorbic acid [AAsc]). A group of tuberose flower spikes was kept as control, and in all cases destructive and non-destructive variables were evaluated during postharvest.
Results: Relative fresh weight and water consumption increased with preservative solutions in both varieties. The appearance of the ‘Perla’ variety was excellent for 5 days with Crystal®. The ‘Mexicano’ variety had more open flowers with Crystal® and Sac + AC + HQC, while the ‘Perla’ variety had the same result with AAsc and Crystal®. Respiration in the Mexicano’ variety was high with Sac + AC + HQC, and in the case of ‘Perla’ variety, respiration was low with AAsc. The highest specific superoxide dismutase activity was detected with AAsc and Crystal® for ‘Perla’ variety.
Study limitations: The results are valid without previous applications of pulse or hydrating solutions in tuberose varieties evaluated.
Originality: This is the first study where the postharvest behavior of two Mexican tuberose varieties is evaluated in preservative solutions.
Conclusions: ‘Mexicano’ and ‘Perla’ varieties can use Crystal® and AAsc solutions to maintain the quality for longer time in vase.

 
 
  • 3D computational fluid dynamics modeling of temperature and humidity in a humidified greenhouse

  • Modelación mediante dinámica de fluidos computacional 3D de temperatura y humedad en un invernadero con humidificación

Cuauhtémoc Pérez-Vega; José Armando Ramírez-Arias; Irineo Lorenzo López-Cruz; Ramón Arteaga-Ramírez; Rocío Cervantes-Osornio

modelos numéricos, ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes, ANSYS Fluent, simulación

10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.10.060

Received: 2020-10-13
Accepted: 2020-12-29
Available online: 2021-01-21
Pages:16-33

Introduction: Medium and low technology greenhouses use natural ventilation as a method of temperature and humidity control. However, at certain times of the year, this is insufficient to extract excess heat inside the greenhouse, so devices such as hydrophanes (humidifiers) have been implemented to reduce the temperature. It is necessary to know the behavior of temperature and humidity, since both factors influence the development of crops and, therefore, their yield.
Objective: To develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a naturally ventilated zenithal greenhouse equipped with hydrophanes to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse.
Methodology: The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse equipped with hydrophanes and grown with bell pepper. Temperature and humidity measurements were performed from March 7 to 25, 2014. The ANSYS Workbench program was used for the 3D CFD modeling.
Results: The CFD model satisfactorily described the temperature and humidity distribution of the greenhouse, with an error of 0.11 to 3.43 °C for temperature, and 0.44 to 10.80 % for humidity.
Limitations of the study: Numerical modeling using CFD is inadequate to model the temporality of the variables.
Originality: There are few studies that model humidity behavior with CFD and the use of hydrophanes in Mexico.
Conclusions: The CFD model allowed visualizing the distribution of temperature and air humidity inside the greenhouse.

Introduction: Medium and low technology greenhouses use natural ventilation as a method of temperature and humidity control. However, at certain times of the year, this is insufficient to extract excess heat inside the greenhouse, so devices such as hydrophanes (humidifiers) have been implemented to reduce the temperature. It is necessary to know the behavior of temperature and humidity, since both factors influence the development of crops and, therefore, their yield.
Objective: To develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a naturally ventilated zenithal greenhouse equipped with hydrophanes to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse.
Methodology: The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse equipped with hydrophanes and grown with bell pepper. Temperature and humidity measurements were performed from March 7 to 25, 2014. The ANSYS Workbench program was used for the 3D CFD modeling.
Results: The CFD model satisfactorily described the temperature and humidity distribution of the greenhouse, with an error of 0.11 to 3.43 °C for temperature, and 0.44 to 10.80 % for humidity.
Limitations of the study: Numerical modeling using CFD is inadequate to model the temporality of the variables.
Originality: There are few studies that model humidity behavior with CFD and the use of hydrophanes in Mexico.
Conclusions: The CFD model allowed visualizing the distribution of temperature and air humidity inside the greenhouse.

 
 
  • Spatial behaviour of Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret) on ‘Hass’ avocado in Estado de Mexico

  • Comportamiento espacial de Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret) en aguacate ‘Hass’ en el Estado de México

Nancy Martínez-Martínez; José Francisco Ramírez-Dávila; Jaime Mejía-Carranza; Sara Vera-Noguez

aggregated, spatial distribution, armed scale, geostatistics, kriging

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.01.005

Received: 2020-12-24
Accepted: 2021-04-29
Available online: 2021-06-01
Pages:33-52

Introduction: Avocado exports have been affected by the presence of Hemiberlesia lataniae, the main damage is aesthetic and undermines fruit quality.
Objective: To determine the spatial distribution of Hemiberlesia lataniae in a ‘Hass’ avocado crop in Estado de Mexico.
Methodology: The experiment was developed in three avocado growing areas (Coatepec Harinas, Donato Guerra and Ixtapan del Oro). Sampling was carried out using the quadrat methodology, a total of 400 trees were sampled per zone from August 2019 to July 2020. The trees were divided into three strata (high, medium and low), and a terminal branch from each cardinal point was marked. Each tree was marked and georeferenced with a differential GPS.
Results: A total of 24 samples per zone were generated, and all cases had an aggregated spatial behavior of Hemiberlesia lataniae. Semivariograms were fitted to spherical, exponential, and Gaussian models.
Limitation of the study: Geostatistics is the only method that provides the exact location of the pest and the sample in density maps.
Originality: The present study proposes to implement integrated management strategies to reduce ecological damage, due to indiscriminate use of insecticides, and presence of residues in fruits.
Conclusions: The following study allowed us to know the spatial distribution of Hemiberlesia lataniae by means of density maps in three ‘Hass’ avocado producing areas in Estado de Mexico, where an aggregated spatial distribution was observed.

Introduction: Avocado exports have been affected by the presence of Hemiberlesia lataniae, the main damage is aesthetic and undermines fruit quality.
Objective: To determine the spatial distribution of Hemiberlesia lataniae in a ‘Hass’ avocado crop in Estado de Mexico.
Methodology: The experiment was developed in three avocado growing areas (Coatepec Harinas, Donato Guerra and Ixtapan del Oro). Sampling was carried out using the quadrat methodology, a total of 400 trees were sampled per zone from August 2019 to July 2020. The trees were divided into three strata (high, medium and low), and a terminal branch from each cardinal point was marked. Each tree was marked and georeferenced with a differential GPS.
Results: A total of 24 samples per zone were generated, and all cases had an aggregated spatial behavior of Hemiberlesia lataniae. Semivariograms were fitted to spherical, exponential, and Gaussian models.
Limitation of the study: Geostatistics is the only method that provides the exact location of the pest and the sample in density maps.
Originality: The present study proposes to implement integrated management strategies to reduce ecological damage, due to indiscriminate use of insecticides, and presence of residues in fruits.
Conclusions: The following study allowed us to know the spatial distribution of Hemiberlesia lataniae by means of density maps in three ‘Hass’ avocado producing areas in Estado de Mexico, where an aggregated spatial distribution was observed.

 
 
  • Hourly hydrologic modeling in the upper basin of the Fuerte River, Sinaloa, Mexico

  • Modelación hidrológica horaria en la cuenca alta del río Fuerte, Sinaloa, México

Edgar Merino-Jiménez; Laura A. Ibáñez-Castillo; Ramón Arteaga-Ramírez; Mario Alberto Vázquez-Peña

Clark unit hydrograph, runoff curve number, time of concentration with the California Culvert Practice equation, calibration and validation of surface hydrologic models

10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.11.085

Received: 2020-11-23
Accepted: 2021-04-29
Available online: 2021-06-01
Pages:53-76

Introduction: Mexico uses hydrological models to determine floods, evaluate land use change scenarios, evaluate climate change scenarios, and define federal zones, among other applications. However, the models are rarely calibrated beforehand, which increases uncertainty in the design of structures and hydraulic standards.
Objective: To build a hydrological model for the watershed of the Fuerte River, Mexico, of extreme rainfall events occurred in 2009, 2011, 2015, 2016 and 2017.
Methodology: Five extreme rainfall events were considered for this study. The hydrologic model was design using the HEC-HMS program, and calibrated at the Tubares hydrometric station. The runoff curve number methodology and the Clark unit hydrograph were used. Results: The results collected in four of the five events were positive; the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ranged between 0.22 and 0.52. The temporal behavior of the river, at times when it moved away from the flow value, preserved the variation trend.
Limitations of the study: The study reaches the Tubares hydrometric station, Chihuahua, without including the downstream dams in Sinaloa.
Originality: There are few hydrological studies that generate a calibrated and, therefore, reliable hourly model.
Conclusions: The hourly hydrologic model had an acceptable performance in four of the five predicted events in terms of NSE and root mean square error (RMSE).

Introduction: Mexico uses hydrological models to determine floods, evaluate land use change scenarios, evaluate climate change scenarios, and define federal zones, among other applications. However, the models are rarely calibrated beforehand, which increases uncertainty in the design of structures and hydraulic standards.
Objective: To build a hydrological model for the watershed of the Fuerte River, Mexico, of extreme rainfall events occurred in 2009, 2011, 2015, 2016 and 2017.
Methodology: Five extreme rainfall events were considered for this study. The hydrologic model was design using the HEC-HMS program, and calibrated at the Tubares hydrometric station. The runoff curve number methodology and the Clark unit hydrograph were used. Results: The results collected in four of the five events were positive; the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ranged between 0.22 and 0.52. The temporal behavior of the river, at times when it moved away from the flow value, preserved the variation trend.
Limitations of the study: The study reaches the Tubares hydrometric station, Chihuahua, without including the downstream dams in Sinaloa.
Originality: There are few hydrological studies that generate a calibrated and, therefore, reliable hourly model.
Conclusions: The hourly hydrologic model had an acceptable performance in four of the five predicted events in terms of NSE and root mean square error (RMSE).

 
 
  • Hydrologic modeling to measure the impact of climate change in the Yaqui River basin

  • Modelación hidrológica para medir el impacto del cambio climático en la cuenca del río Yaqui

Alejandro Cruz-González; Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen; Maritza Argelia Macías-Corral; Miguel Agustín Velásquez-Valle; Ricardo Trejo-Calzada

SWAT model, RCP, surface runoff

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.02.040

Received: 2021-02-23
Accepted: 2021-06-09
Available online: 2021-07-07
Pages:77-94

Introduction: Changes in climate patterns threaten water security of the population and its economic activities.
Objective: To model and analyze the behavior of surface runoff in the Yaqui river basin under climate change scenarios.
Methodology: Representative concentration pathways (RCP) of three sub-basins (La Angostura, El Novillo and El Oviachic) were shown using hydrologic modeling with SWAT, where the simulated variable was surface runoff.
Results: A change in water availability of -67 % is expected in La Angostura for the period 2021-2040 (RCP2.6) and an increase of 60 % from 2041-2060 (RCP8.5), in El Novillo a decrease of 65 % is predicted for the period 2061-2080 (RCP4. 5) and a 42 % increase from 2061-2080 (RCP2.6), and in El Oviachic a 63 % decrease is predicted for the period 2041-2060 (RCP2.6 and 4.5) and a 47 % increase from 2041-2060 (RCP4.5).
Limitations: Veracity and impact of basins studies depend on quality hydro-climatic information of unrestricted availability.
Originality: The impact of climate change on the availability of water for agricultural use in the Yaqui River basin was projected. In addition, there is a technological platform for planning processes.
Conclusions: The data collected can be used to generate adaptation and mitigation strategies for efficient water use in the basin and to propose long-term sustainable management alternatives.

Introduction: Changes in climate patterns threaten water security of the population and its economic activities.
Objective: To model and analyze the behavior of surface runoff in the Yaqui river basin under climate change scenarios.
Methodology: Representative concentration pathways (RCP) of three sub-basins (La Angostura, El Novillo and El Oviachic) were shown using hydrologic modeling with SWAT, where the simulated variable was surface runoff.
Results: A change in water availability of -67 % is expected in La Angostura for the period 2021-2040 (RCP2.6) and an increase of 60 % from 2041-2060 (RCP8.5), in El Novillo a decrease of 65 % is predicted for the period 2061-2080 (RCP4. 5) and a 42 % increase from 2061-2080 (RCP2.6), and in El Oviachic a 63 % decrease is predicted for the period 2041-2060 (RCP2.6 and 4.5) and a 47 % increase from 2041-2060 (RCP4.5).
Limitations: Veracity and impact of basins studies depend on quality hydro-climatic information of unrestricted availability.
Originality: The impact of climate change on the availability of water for agricultural use in the Yaqui River basin was projected. In addition, there is a technological platform for planning processes.
Conclusions: The data collected can be used to generate adaptation and mitigation strategies for efficient water use in the basin and to propose long-term sustainable management alternatives.

 
 
  • Spatio-temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration from empirical methods in Chihuahua, Mexico

  • Variación espacio-temporal de la evapotranspiración de referencia a partir de métodos empíricos en Chihuahua, México

Augusto Omar Villa-Camacho; Ronald Ernesto Ontiveros-Capurata; Osías Ruíz-Álvarez; Alberto González-Sánchez; José Antonio Quevedo-Tiznado; Laura Maleni Ordoñez-Hernández

water requirements, Hargreaves, modified Penman-Monteith, semi-arid, spatial interpolation

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.02.035

Received: 2021-02-15
Accepted: 2021-06-16
Available online: 2021-07-12
Pages:95-115

Introduction: Evapotranspiration is key in the management of arid agricultural areas. In Chihuahua, the volume of irrigation water is based on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated with empirical methods and extrapolated to the cropped area, which is inaccurate. The alternative is to calculate ETo variation by spatial interpolation.
Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal variation of ETo using empirical methods and spatial interpolation in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Methodology: Records from 33 meteorological stations from 1960-2013 and seven ETo estimation methods were used. The results were compared with the Penman-Monteith method, modified by FAO (PMMF), ANOVA analysis (P ≤ 0.05), and homogeneous ETo surfaces built from the point values by spatial interpolation.
Results: The Hargreaves method (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 1.16 and ME = -0.69 mm-day-1) had a smaller bias with respect to PMMF. ETo values ranged from 2.5 to 7.1 mm-day-1 in a west-east direction, with maximum values at low elevations and minimum values at high elevations, which showed the influence of the Sierra Madre Occidental on ETo. This characteristic was most noticeable in the warm months (June to September).
Limitations of the study: The use of estimated data needs field validation.
Originality: The ETo estimation with seven empirical methods and one spatial interpolation method to extrapolate values to areas with scarce meteorological data.
Conclusions: The Hargreaves method allows estimating the spatio-temporal variation of ETo in large extensions and areas with limited meteorological information.

Introduction: Evapotranspiration is key in the management of arid agricultural areas. In Chihuahua, the volume of irrigation water is based on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated with empirical methods and extrapolated to the cropped area, which is inaccurate. The alternative is to calculate ETo variation by spatial interpolation.
Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal variation of ETo using empirical methods and spatial interpolation in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Methodology: Records from 33 meteorological stations from 1960-2013 and seven ETo estimation methods were used. The results were compared with the Penman-Monteith method, modified by FAO (PMMF), ANOVA analysis (P ≤ 0.05), and homogeneous ETo surfaces built from the point values by spatial interpolation.
Results: The Hargreaves method (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 1.16 and ME = -0.69 mm-day-1) had a smaller bias with respect to PMMF. ETo values ranged from 2.5 to 7.1 mm-day-1 in a west-east direction, with maximum values at low elevations and minimum values at high elevations, which showed the influence of the Sierra Madre Occidental on ETo. This characteristic was most noticeable in the warm months (June to September).
Limitations of the study: The use of estimated data needs field validation.
Originality: The ETo estimation with seven empirical methods and one spatial interpolation method to extrapolate values to areas with scarce meteorological data.
Conclusions: The Hargreaves method allows estimating the spatio-temporal variation of ETo in large extensions and areas with limited meteorological information.