ISSN e: 2007-4026 / ISSN print:2007-3925

       

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

    Volume 14, Issue 1 January - June 2022   Creative Commons License

      
 

    14 January - June 2022  

   Creative Commons License

 
  
 
 
  • Soil quality in garlic crops under agroecological transition at Río Negro, Argentina

  • Calidad del suelo en el cultivo de ajo en transición agroecológica en Río Negro, Argentina

Lucrecia Avilés; Ariel Gajardo; Laura Navarro; Silvia Canón

Allium sativa, salinity, fertility, soil respiration, enzymatic activity

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.04.065

Received: 2021-04-19
Accepted: 2022-03
Available online: 2022-04-18
Pages:03-15

Introduction: Agroecological transition is the adoption of different practices that tend towards sustainable agriculture, among which the substitution of synthetic inputs by alternative or organic ones stands out.
Objective: To evaluate the changes in the physicochemical and biological quality of soils fertilized with onion residue compost and cattle manure in a garlic crop.
Methodology: Three sources of fertilization were tested in a garlic crop with gravity irrigation: 1) compost of onion residues with cattle manure, 2) monoammonium phosphate and 3) compost and monoammonium phosphate. Five soil samples were taken on different dates and soil respiration, esterase and dehydrogenase activity, and fertility were determined.
Results: Similar garlic yields were obtained with the different fertilization sources. In composted soils, electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio decreased, but increased until reaching similar values to the soil that received mineral fertilization.
Limitations of the study: The agroecological transition proposal is sustainable if compost production is carried out on the same site.
Originality: The use of compost from onion production residues and cattle manure is proposed as an alternative for the reduction of synthetic inputs in the production of morado garlic.
Conclusions: The use of composted residues from the previous cycles production proved to be a sustainable alternative for the agroecological transition of morado garlic crops with gravity irrigation in the lower valley of Río Negro.

Introduction: Agroecological transition is the adoption of different practices that tend towards sustainable agriculture, among which the substitution of synthetic inputs by alternative or organic ones stands out.
Objective: To evaluate the changes in the physicochemical and biological quality of soils fertilized with onion residue compost and cattle manure in a garlic crop.
Methodology: Three sources of fertilization were tested in a garlic crop with gravity irrigation: 1) compost of onion residues with cattle manure, 2) monoammonium phosphate and 3) compost and monoammonium phosphate. Five soil samples were taken on different dates and soil respiration, esterase and dehydrogenase activity, and fertility were determined.
Results: Similar garlic yields were obtained with the different fertilization sources. In composted soils, electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio decreased, but increased until reaching similar values to the soil that received mineral fertilization.
Limitations of the study: The agroecological transition proposal is sustainable if compost production is carried out on the same site.
Originality: The use of compost from onion production residues and cattle manure is proposed as an alternative for the reduction of synthetic inputs in the production of morado garlic.
Conclusions: The use of composted residues from the previous cycles production proved to be a sustainable alternative for the agroecological transition of morado garlic crops with gravity irrigation in the lower valley of Río Negro.

 
 
  • The impact of vegetation cover on soil erosion and soil deposition due to runoff

  • Impacto de la cobertura vegetal en la erosión-deposición del suelo por efecto de escorrentía superficial

Ernesto Pedroza-Parga; Miguel Agustín Velásquez-Valle; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen; Luis Gerardo Yáñez-Chávez

soil degradation, water erosion, buffelgrass, arid areas, extensive livestock

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.12.135

Received: 2021-12-21
Accepted: 2022-03-27
Available online: 2022-04-08
Pages:17-31

Introduction: In arid regions, soil losses are caused by torrential rainfall events and by the erosive energy of runoff.
Objectives: To quantify the impact of the use of different types of vegetation cover on soil erosion and soil deposition caused by overland flow.
Methodology: The experiment was carried out from July to September 2017 under a randomized block experimental design with three replications. The treatments evaluated were maize harvest residues and buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) sowing (MHR + G), maize harvest residues (MHR), buffel grass sowing (G), and the control (C).
Results: The MHR + G treatment reduced erosion by 44 % (26.3 t·ha-1) compared to the control (58.6 t·ha-1). Soil deposition was 47.6 and 51.7 t·ha-1 with MHR + G and G, respectively, while in C was 26.1 t·ha-1.
Limitations of the study: The results found are valid for the soil and water conditions of this study Originality: There are few technical and scientific reports on the behavior of soil particle removal and deposition processes under runoff conditions.
Conclusions: The layer thickness of soil removed and deposited, under overland flow conditions, depends on the type of soil cover. The MHR + G treatment significantly reduced soil erosion, making it a viable alternative.

Introduction: In arid regions, soil losses are caused by torrential rainfall events and by the erosive energy of runoff.
Objectives: To quantify the impact of the use of different types of vegetation cover on soil erosion and soil deposition caused by overland flow.
Methodology: The experiment was carried out from July to September 2017 under a randomized block experimental design with three replications. The treatments evaluated were maize harvest residues and buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) sowing (MHR + G), maize harvest residues (MHR), buffel grass sowing (G), and the control (C).
Results: The MHR + G treatment reduced erosion by 44 % (26.3 t·ha-1) compared to the control (58.6 t·ha-1). Soil deposition was 47.6 and 51.7 t·ha-1 with MHR + G and G, respectively, while in C was 26.1 t·ha-1.
Limitations of the study: The results found are valid for the soil and water conditions of this study Originality: There are few technical and scientific reports on the behavior of soil particle removal and deposition processes under runoff conditions.
Conclusions: The layer thickness of soil removed and deposited, under overland flow conditions, depends on the type of soil cover. The MHR + G treatment significantly reduced soil erosion, making it a viable alternative.

 
 
  • Physicochemical and antifungal properties of active gelatin-carboxymethylcellulose films with coconut shell extract

  • Propiedades fisicoquímicas y antifúngicas de películas activas de gelatina-carboximetilcelulosa con extracto de cáscara de coco

Maria Fernanda Vargas-Torrico; Erich von Borries-Medrano; Salvador Valle-Guadarrama; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Méndez

biopolymeric matrix, phytopathogens, antimicrobial extract, barrier properties, mechanical properties.

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.09.110

Received: 20210929
Accepted: 20220325
Available online: 2022-04-28
Pages:33-50

Introduction: The formulation of bioactive packaging represents an innovative alternative to control the development of microorganisms affecting the shelf life of foods.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a coconut shell extract added to gelatincarboxymethylcellulose biopolymeric films on their physicochemical and antifungal properties to determine their potential use as packaging material for fruit and vegetable products.
Methodology: Gelatin-carboxymethylcellulose films were prepared with different concentrations of coconut shell extract and their thickness, mechanical (puncture force and tensile strength), physical (water vapor permeability) and microstructural properties, color, FTIR, UV light transmittance, opacity and in vitro antifungal activity were determined.
Results: Changes in mechanical, physical and microstructural properties were observed depending on the concentration of the extract. The color was modified by the effect of the extract, with higher opacity and lower light transmittance as its concentration increased. Intermolecular interactions between the biopolymers and the extract components were observed in the FTIR spectra. In vitro tests showed inhibitory capacity on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer.
Limitations of the study: The effect of the coconut shell additive only applies to the extraction conditions used.
Originality: There are no studies supporting the antifungal capacity of coconut shell extract added to biopolymer films.
Conclusions: Active gelatin-carboxymethylcellulose films with antifungal activity were reported. The physical and structural properties of the films make them suitable for use as packaging material for fruit and vegetable products.

Introduction: The formulation of bioactive packaging represents an innovative alternative to control the development of microorganisms affecting the shelf life of foods.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a coconut shell extract added to gelatincarboxymethylcellulose biopolymeric films on their physicochemical and antifungal properties to determine their potential use as packaging material for fruit and vegetable products.
Methodology: Gelatin-carboxymethylcellulose films were prepared with different concentrations of coconut shell extract and their thickness, mechanical (puncture force and tensile strength), physical (water vapor permeability) and microstructural properties, color, FTIR, UV light transmittance, opacity and in vitro antifungal activity were determined.
Results: Changes in mechanical, physical and microstructural properties were observed depending on the concentration of the extract. The color was modified by the effect of the extract, with higher opacity and lower light transmittance as its concentration increased. Intermolecular interactions between the biopolymers and the extract components were observed in the FTIR spectra. In vitro tests showed inhibitory capacity on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer.
Limitations of the study: The effect of the coconut shell additive only applies to the extraction conditions used.
Originality: There are no studies supporting the antifungal capacity of coconut shell extract added to biopolymer films.
Conclusions: Active gelatin-carboxymethylcellulose films with antifungal activity were reported. The physical and structural properties of the films make them suitable for use as packaging material for fruit and vegetable products.

 
 
  • Soil moisture depletion rates on sunflower yield

  • Niveles de agotamiento de la humedad aprovechable del suelo en el rendimiento del girasol

Marco Antonio Inzunza-Ibarra; Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen; Sergio Iván Jiménez-Jiménez; Ernesto Alonso Catalán-Valencia; Mariana de Jesús Marcial-Pablo

Helianthus annuus L., eficiencia del agua, evapotranspiración, función de producción del agua.

10.5154/r.inagbi.2021.09.105

Received: 2021-08-31
Accepted: 2022-04-05
Available online: 2022-05-03
Pages:51-63

Introduction: Optimizing the irrigation water resource is essential due to its scarcity, so it is therefore important to consider efficient crops such as sunflower.
Objective: To estimate the sunflower grain yield at different levels of available soil moisture depletion to estimate water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop under different water conditions.
Methodology: Seven treatments resulting from four soil moisture levels (40, 60, 60, 80 and 100 % of available soil moisture [ASM] and two periods of sunflower growth (from emergence to the beginning of flowering [first stage] and from flowering to physiological maturity [second stage]).
Results: The highest grain yield (5.5 t·ha-1) and WUE of (0.922 kg·m-3) were recorded in the 60-60 % ASM treatment in the first and second stages of sunflower development, and by consuming 62.8 cm of water.
Limitations of the study: The results should not be extrapolated to conditions outside the study levels.
Originality: To generate research methodologies to quantify, in a more realistic way, the relationship of yields with crop water requirements.
Conclusions: The highest WUE in sunflower (0.922 kg·m-3) was recorded when it consumed 31.4 and 28.12 cm of water, with 58.8 and 60.5 % of ASM in the first and second stages, respectively, which was similar to the 60-60 % treatment.

Introduction: Optimizing the irrigation water resource is essential due to its scarcity, so it is therefore important to consider efficient crops such as sunflower.
Objective: To estimate the sunflower grain yield at different levels of available soil moisture depletion to estimate water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop under different water conditions.
Methodology: Seven treatments resulting from four soil moisture levels (40, 60, 60, 80 and 100 % of available soil moisture [ASM] and two periods of sunflower growth (from emergence to the beginning of flowering [first stage] and from flowering to physiological maturity [second stage]).
Results: The highest grain yield (5.5 t·ha-1) and WUE of (0.922 kg·m-3) were recorded in the 60-60 % ASM treatment in the first and second stages of sunflower development, and by consuming 62.8 cm of water.
Limitations of the study: The results should not be extrapolated to conditions outside the study levels.
Originality: To generate research methodologies to quantify, in a more realistic way, the relationship of yields with crop water requirements.
Conclusions: The highest WUE in sunflower (0.922 kg·m-3) was recorded when it consumed 31.4 and 28.12 cm of water, with 58.8 and 60.5 % of ASM in the first and second stages, respectively, which was similar to the 60-60 % treatment.