ISSN e: 2007-4026 / ISSN print:2007-3925

       

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

    Volume 12, Issue 2 July - December 2020   Creative Commons License

      
 

    12 July - December 2020  

   Creative Commons License

 
  
 
 
  • Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hydrolysates obtained from lupin and faba bean proteins via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation

  • Actividades antioxidante e inhibitoria de la ECA de hidrolizados obtenidos a partir de proteínas de lupino y haba mediante hidrólisis enzimática y fermentación

Blanca Elizabeth Hernández-Rodríguez; Eleazar Aguirre-Mandujano; Arely Prado-Barragán; Guillermo Ismael Koh-Kantún; Consuelo Lobato-Calleros

faba bean, Lupinus gredensis, protein hydrolysates, flavourzyme, solid-state fermentation

10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.02.020

Received: 2020/02/06
Accepted: 2020/03/12
Available online: 2020-06-01
Pages:099-114

Introduction: Legumes and pseudocereals protein hydrolysates have been recognized as having improved potential health-promoting properties as compared with native proteins.
Objectives: 1) Produce bioactive hydrolysates from lupin and faba bean proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and solid-state fermentation (SF), 2) compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates and 3) evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of the hydrolysates.
Methodology: Hydrolysates from proteins of faba bean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus gredensis) were obtained by EH using Flavourzyme and SF by Aspergillus niger. The antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates were assessed.
Results: All the hydrolysates presented DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 1.23-2.08 mgprotein·mL-1. Only EH and SF hydrolysates obtained from lupin proteins had ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50: 2.39 and 14.08 mgprotein·mL-1, respectively). Radical scavenging activity hydrolysates was significantly reduced after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, while ACE-inhibitory activity showed variable behavior.
Study limitations: Specific molecules responsible for the in vitro health-promoting properties should be identified.
Originality: Relevant information is provided on health-promoting attributes of faba bean and lupin hydrolysates obtained by EH and SF.
Conclusions: EH and SF improved the health-promoting properties of faba bean and lupin native proteins.

  • Bioactive hydrolysates were obtained from faba bean and lupin proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and solid-state fermentation (SF).
  • EH and SF produced lupin and faba bean protein hydrolysates having DPPH radical scavenging activity.
  • EH and SF produced lupin and faba bean protein hydrolysates having DPPH radical scavenging activity.
  • In vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly diminished the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates.
  • Introduction: Legumes and pseudocereals protein hydrolysates have been recognized as having improved potential health-promoting properties as compared with native proteins.
    Objectives: 1) Produce bioactive hydrolysates from lupin and faba bean proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and solid-state fermentation (SF), 2) compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates and 3) evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of the hydrolysates.
    Methodology: Hydrolysates from proteins of faba bean (Vicia faba) and lupin (Lupinus gredensis) were obtained by EH using Flavourzyme and SF by Aspergillus niger. The antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates were assessed.
    Results: All the hydrolysates presented DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 1.23-2.08 mgprotein·mL-1. Only EH and SF hydrolysates obtained from lupin proteins had ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50: 2.39 and 14.08 mgprotein·mL-1, respectively). Radical scavenging activity hydrolysates was significantly reduced after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, while ACE-inhibitory activity showed variable behavior.
    Study limitations: Specific molecules responsible for the in vitro health-promoting properties should be identified.
    Originality: Relevant information is provided on health-promoting attributes of faba bean and lupin hydrolysates obtained by EH and SF.
    Conclusions: EH and SF improved the health-promoting properties of faba bean and lupin native proteins.

  • Bioactive hydrolysates were obtained from faba bean and lupin proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) and solid-state fermentation (SF).
  • EH and SF produced lupin and faba bean protein hydrolysates having DPPH radical scavenging activity.
  • EH and SF produced lupin and faba bean protein hydrolysates having DPPH radical scavenging activity.
  • In vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly diminished the DPPH radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates.
  •  
     
    • Influence of microwave drying process on microstructure and thermodynamic properties of nopal cladodes

    • Influencia del proceso de secado por microondas sobre la microestructura y las propiedades termodinámicas de cladodios de nopal

    Leidy Laura Cruz-de la Cruz; Teodoro Espinosa-Solares; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Méndez; Diana Guerra-Ramírez; Guadalupe Hernández-Eugenio

    dehydrated nopal, microstructural characteristics, microscopy, adsorption isotherms, net isosteric heat

    10.5154/r.inagbi.2019.12.075

    Received: 2019-12-16
    Accepted: 2020-04-21
    Available online: 2020-07-06
    Pages:115-130

    Introduction: The drying of nopal offers an alternative for their preservation, storage, handling and consumption.
    Objective: The effects of microwave drying on the microstructural characteristics of nopal and their thermodynamic properties at the food-water interface were evaluated.
    Methodology: Nopal cladodes were microwave-dried by applying powers of 75 and 158 kW∙kg-1. Microstructure of the samples was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope. Adsorption isotherms were determined at temperatures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C. Net isosteric heat (q-st) was calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the Peleg model.
    Results: Samples dehydrated at 75 kW∙kg-1 showed greater preservation of their internal and external structure. When applying a higher power (158 kW∙kg-1), greater damage was observed in the microstructure of the material. Type III adsorption isotherm curves were obtained according to the Brunauer classification. The q-st of the dehydrated nopal was 7.51 kJ∙mol-1 for a moisture content of 0.05 kgH2O∙kg-1.
    Limitations of the study: The results obtained are valid only for microwave drying by applying powers of 75 and 158 kW∙kg-1.
    Originality: This work proposes the microwave drying of nopal as an alternative method that reduces drying time and allows the preservation of the material’s structural properties.
    Conclusions: The power applied in the microwave drying of nopal had a direct impact on the microstructure of the samples. The use of a power of 75 kW∙kg-1 was the best drying condition to preserve the structures constituting the cladodes.

  • Microstructure of the nopal samples was influenced by the power applied in the microwave drying.
  • Adsorption isotherms indicated weak interactions between the adsorbate and the adsorbent.
  • Microwave drying of nopal is an alternative method that reduces drying time.
  • Microwave drying of nopal allows the preservation of the microstructural characteristics.
  • Introduction: The drying of nopal offers an alternative for their preservation, storage, handling and consumption.
    Objective: The effects of microwave drying on the microstructural characteristics of nopal and their thermodynamic properties at the food-water interface were evaluated.
    Methodology: Nopal cladodes were microwave-dried by applying powers of 75 and 158 kW∙kg-1. Microstructure of the samples was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope. Adsorption isotherms were determined at temperatures of 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C. Net isosteric heat (q-st) was calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the Peleg model.
    Results: Samples dehydrated at 75 kW∙kg-1 showed greater preservation of their internal and external structure. When applying a higher power (158 kW∙kg-1), greater damage was observed in the microstructure of the material. Type III adsorption isotherm curves were obtained according to the Brunauer classification. The q-st of the dehydrated nopal was 7.51 kJ∙mol-1 for a moisture content of 0.05 kgH2O∙kg-1.
    Limitations of the study: The results obtained are valid only for microwave drying by applying powers of 75 and 158 kW∙kg-1.
    Originality: This work proposes the microwave drying of nopal as an alternative method that reduces drying time and allows the preservation of the material’s structural properties.
    Conclusions: The power applied in the microwave drying of nopal had a direct impact on the microstructure of the samples. The use of a power of 75 kW∙kg-1 was the best drying condition to preserve the structures constituting the cladodes.

  • Microstructure of the nopal samples was influenced by the power applied in the microwave drying.
  • Adsorption isotherms indicated weak interactions between the adsorbate and the adsorbent.
  • Microwave drying of nopal is an alternative method that reduces drying time.
  • Microwave drying of nopal allows the preservation of the microstructural characteristics.
  •  
     
    • Productivity analysis of the Río Bravo irrigation districts using performance indicators

    • Análisis productivo de los distritos de riego del Río Bravo usando indicadores de desempeño

    Mauro Iñiguez-Covarrubias; Waldo Ojeda-Bustamante; Víctor Manuel Olmedo-Vázquez

    productivity indices, conduction efficiencies, evaluation of irrigation areas

    10.5154/r.inagbi.2018.10.022

    Received: 2018-10-24
    Accepted: 2020-05-13
    Available online: 2020-07-06
    Pages:131-158

    Introduction: Irrigation districts (IDs) are irrigation projects that require periodic evaluation to determine performance.
    Objectives: To analyze the production behavior of several IDs located in the transboundary Río Bravo basin, Mexico.
    Methodology: Agricultural and hydrometric information was compiled, organized and analyzed for 11 IDs in the Río Bravo basin to determine production performance based on seven indicators.
    Results: The production value with respect to the volume of water extracted from the supply source varied from 1.1 to 9 $∙m-3, while the productivity of water extracted from the supply source varied from 0.6 a 5.7 kg∙m-3 and the production per unit of water delivered to users varied from 0.81 to 9.27 kg∙m-3.
    Limitations of the study: Performance indicators reflect the productivity of the irrigation area according to management of the crop, irrigation service, technological package, crop pattern, infrastructure, among other factors.
    Originality: Performance of IDs located in the high-water pressure area in the Río Bravo basin was analyzed based on available information.
    Conclusions: Several performance indicators are required to characterize integrally IDs’ productivity, With the use of hydro-agricultural indicators it is possible to implement improvement actions, where the value of irrigation water can be maximized for the benefit of producers.

    Introduction: Irrigation districts (IDs) are irrigation projects that require periodic evaluation to determine performance.
    Objectives: To analyze the production behavior of several IDs located in the transboundary Río Bravo basin, Mexico.
    Methodology: Agricultural and hydrometric information was compiled, organized and analyzed for 11 IDs in the Río Bravo basin to determine production performance based on seven indicators.
    Results: The production value with respect to the volume of water extracted from the supply source varied from 1.1 to 9 $∙m-3, while the productivity of water extracted from the supply source varied from 0.6 a 5.7 kg∙m-3 and the production per unit of water delivered to users varied from 0.81 to 9.27 kg∙m-3.
    Limitations of the study: Performance indicators reflect the productivity of the irrigation area according to management of the crop, irrigation service, technological package, crop pattern, infrastructure, among other factors.
    Originality: Performance of IDs located in the high-water pressure area in the Río Bravo basin was analyzed based on available information.
    Conclusions: Several performance indicators are required to characterize integrally IDs’ productivity, With the use of hydro-agricultural indicators it is possible to implement improvement actions, where the value of irrigation water can be maximized for the benefit of producers.

     
     
    • Reliability assessment of three topographic methods for generating digital elevation models (DEMs)

    • Evaluación de la confiabilidad de tres métodos topográficos para generar modelos digitales de elevación (MDE)

    Rodrigo Roblero-Hidalgo; Jorge Flores-Velázquez; Jesús Chávez-Morales; Aurelio Reyes-Ramírez

    accuracy, topographic method, drone, orthomosaic

    10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.01.005

    Received: 2019-12-31
    Accepted: 2020-07-21
    Available online: 2020-08-26
    Pages:159-171

    Introduction: A digital elevation model (DEM) allows for the analysis of specific features on the earth’s surface in three dimensions. The engineering DEM is useful to evaluate resources and design management strategies.
    Objective: To evaluate the technical-operational feasibility of generating DEMs from total station (TS) topographic surveys, GPS RTK and aerial photogrammetry using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
    Methodology: A 20x20 m grid was traced in a plot without vegetation (1.4 ha) located in Montecillo, Estado de México, and topographic surveys were carried out with three methods, from which DEMs were generated for graphic and statistical evaluation and by tracing contour lines.
    Results: The estimated statistical errors were 0.15, 0.15 and 0.02 m, for TS vs. UAV, GPS RTK vs. UAV and TS vs. GPS RTK, respectively.
    Study limitations: The instruments used and the geographical conditions of central Mexico may be a reason for variation when extrapolating the results with other devices.
    Originality: A methodology is provided to generate DEMs accurately. The results allow the user to make reasoned choices based on the equipment available.
    Conclusion: The DEMs generated with TS and GPS RTK data have a smaller error than the one obtained from UAVs. The use of UAV helps in the representation of the terrain, since it generates a dense cloud of points that strengthens the procedure for topographic surveys.

  • The technical-operational feasibility of making digital elevation models from photographs taken with UAVs was determined.
  • The digital elevation models obtained with UAVs have a good representation of the terrain due to the sweeping followed in the flight lines.
  • It was determined that the three methods described are complementary with the objective of giving greater detail to the terrain surface.
  • The difference in error between the application of one method and another was obtained for the conditions studied: TS with UAV (0.151 m), GPS RTK with UAV (0.145 m) and TS with GPS RTK (0.019 m).
  • Introduction: A digital elevation model (DEM) allows for the analysis of specific features on the earth’s surface in three dimensions. The engineering DEM is useful to evaluate resources and design management strategies.
    Objective: To evaluate the technical-operational feasibility of generating DEMs from total station (TS) topographic surveys, GPS RTK and aerial photogrammetry using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
    Methodology: A 20x20 m grid was traced in a plot without vegetation (1.4 ha) located in Montecillo, Estado de México, and topographic surveys were carried out with three methods, from which DEMs were generated for graphic and statistical evaluation and by tracing contour lines.
    Results: The estimated statistical errors were 0.15, 0.15 and 0.02 m, for TS vs. UAV, GPS RTK vs. UAV and TS vs. GPS RTK, respectively.
    Study limitations: The instruments used and the geographical conditions of central Mexico may be a reason for variation when extrapolating the results with other devices.
    Originality: A methodology is provided to generate DEMs accurately. The results allow the user to make reasoned choices based on the equipment available.
    Conclusion: The DEMs generated with TS and GPS RTK data have a smaller error than the one obtained from UAVs. The use of UAV helps in the representation of the terrain, since it generates a dense cloud of points that strengthens the procedure for topographic surveys.

  • The technical-operational feasibility of making digital elevation models from photographs taken with UAVs was determined.
  • The digital elevation models obtained with UAVs have a good representation of the terrain due to the sweeping followed in the flight lines.
  • It was determined that the three methods described are complementary with the objective of giving greater detail to the terrain surface.
  • The difference in error between the application of one method and another was obtained for the conditions studied: TS with UAV (0.151 m), GPS RTK with UAV (0.145 m) and TS with GPS RTK (0.019 m).
  •  
     
    • Response of Zea mays var. Jala to Burkholderia sp. and Klebsiella oxytogena under reduced urea dose

    • Respuesta de Zea mays var. Jala a Burkholderia sp. y Klebsiella oxitogena bajo dosis reducida de urea

    maize, soil, hyper fertilization, teocintle, endophyte bacteria genera, phytohormones

    10.5154/r.inagbi.2019.10.070

    Received: 2019-10-07
    Accepted: 20201016
    Available online: 2020-12-09
    Pages:173-182

    Introduction: The growing of maize (zea mays L.) in Latin America is carried out under the intensive production system, which causes loss of soil fertility due to excessive nitrogen fertilizer.
    Objective: Analyzing the response of maize var. Jala to genera of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) endophytes of maize var. Mexicana (teocintle) when using nitrogen fertilizer such as urea at 50 % under greenhouse and soil conditions.
    Methodology: A randomized block design was established with five treatments, three controls and twenty repetitions. The treatments with inoculated maize seeds and 50 % urea were: Burkholderia (KO) and Burkholderia sp. 14 (B14); the controls were: non-inoculated maize with 50 % urea (RC1), non-inoculated maize irrigated with water (FC) and non-inoculated maize with 100 % urea (RC2). The experiments were established under greenhouse and soil conditions. The response variables were radical dry weight (RDW) and fresh weight of grain (FWG). ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison (P ≤ 0.01) were carried out.
    Results: In both environments, treatment B14 showed statistically higher values than those obtained with FC (full control), but statistically equal to RC2 (relative control).
    Study limitations: Maize varieties have specific and beneficial endophytic PGPB genera, which are not necessarily for regional varieties.
    Originality: PGPB endophytes from teocintle (ancestor of maize) were used because of their close genetic relationship with the maize var. Jala. Conclusion: PGPB endophytes from teocintle are a viable option for sustainable maize production.

  • Maize var. mexicana (teocintle) is a potential source of endophytic plant growth promoting bacteria.
  • Endophytic plant growth promoting bacteria were used.
  • Nitrogen fertilizer dosage for maize var. Jala was reduced and optimized.
  • Endophyte bacterial genera and species prevent hyper fertilization of the soil, and thus the contamination of surface and groundwater.
  • Introduction: The growing of maize (zea mays L.) in Latin America is carried out under the intensive production system, which causes loss of soil fertility due to excessive nitrogen fertilizer.
    Objective: Analyzing the response of maize var. Jala to genera of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) endophytes of maize var. Mexicana (teocintle) when using nitrogen fertilizer such as urea at 50 % under greenhouse and soil conditions.
    Methodology: A randomized block design was established with five treatments, three controls and twenty repetitions. The treatments with inoculated maize seeds and 50 % urea were: Burkholderia (KO) and Burkholderia sp. 14 (B14); the controls were: non-inoculated maize with 50 % urea (RC1), non-inoculated maize irrigated with water (FC) and non-inoculated maize with 100 % urea (RC2). The experiments were established under greenhouse and soil conditions. The response variables were radical dry weight (RDW) and fresh weight of grain (FWG). ANOVA and Tukey’s mean comparison (P ≤ 0.01) were carried out.
    Results: In both environments, treatment B14 showed statistically higher values than those obtained with FC (full control), but statistically equal to RC2 (relative control).
    Study limitations: Maize varieties have specific and beneficial endophytic PGPB genera, which are not necessarily for regional varieties.
    Originality: PGPB endophytes from teocintle (ancestor of maize) were used because of their close genetic relationship with the maize var. Jala. Conclusion: PGPB endophytes from teocintle are a viable option for sustainable maize production.

  • Maize var. mexicana (teocintle) is a potential source of endophytic plant growth promoting bacteria.
  • Endophytic plant growth promoting bacteria were used.
  • Nitrogen fertilizer dosage for maize var. Jala was reduced and optimized.
  • Endophyte bacterial genera and species prevent hyper fertilization of the soil, and thus the contamination of surface and groundwater.
  •  
     
    • Effect of adding anthocyanins to blue maize dough on color, texture and antioxidant capacity of maize tortillas

    • Efecto de la adición de antocianinas a masa de maíz azul sobre color, textura y capacidad antioxidante de tortilla

    Víctor Manuel López-Vásquez; Yolanda Salinas-Moreno; Ivone Alemán-de la Torre; Norma Morales-Hernández; Edgardo Bautista-Ramírez

    Zea mays L., microencapsulation, antioxidant capacity.

    10.5154/r.inagbi.2020.07.040

    Received: 2020-07-06
    Accepted: 2020-11-11
    Available online: 2020-12-24
    Pages:183-200

    Introduction: Anthocyanins of maize in microcapsules (MC) can be added in maize dough to modify color and antioxidants in tortillas and derivatives.
    Objective: To evaluate the addition of anthocyanins of maize in MC or extract (EL) to blue-purple maize dough on color, texture, total soluble phenols (TSP), total anthocyanins content (TAC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maize tortillas.
    Methodology: Different concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 %) of MC or EL anthocyanins were added to bluepurple maize dough (Bolita). Blue tortilla made with Chalqueño maize (traditional) was used as reference for color and AC.
    Results: The tortilla with 0.75 and 1.0 % MC had red-purple hue, and with EL the tortilla showed red-orange hues. When cooking the tortilla, it lost 39 to 49.1 % of anthocyanins, regardless of how anthocyanins were added to the dough (MC or EL). The hardness of the tortilla increased with addition of anthocyanins in EL, but not in MC. The addition of anthocyanins increased TAC and TSP. AC of the tortilla in the pigment treatments was higher (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the control and reference.
    Study limitations: Results may change depending on the blue-purple maize grain used.
    Originality: There are no reports of similar studies.
    Conclusions: The addition of low amounts of anthocyanins (< 2 mg) to the blue-purple maize dough produces tortillas similar in color to traditional blue maize tortillas, and with higher AC.

  • Supplementation of blue-purple maize grain dough with microencapsulated anthocyanins or in extract diversifies the color of tortillas.
  • Adding anthocyanin microcapsules to blue-purple maize dough does not affect the texture of maize tortillas.
  • Low amounts of anthocyanins added (< 2 mg) to blue-purple maize dough increase antioxidant capacity of maize tortillas.
  • Maize tortillas with anthocyanins in microcapsules retain color better during storage compared to tortillas with anthocyanins in extract.
  • Introduction: Anthocyanins of maize in microcapsules (MC) can be added in maize dough to modify color and antioxidants in tortillas and derivatives.
    Objective: To evaluate the addition of anthocyanins of maize in MC or extract (EL) to blue-purple maize dough on color, texture, total soluble phenols (TSP), total anthocyanins content (TAC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maize tortillas.
    Methodology: Different concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 %) of MC or EL anthocyanins were added to bluepurple maize dough (Bolita). Blue tortilla made with Chalqueño maize (traditional) was used as reference for color and AC.
    Results: The tortilla with 0.75 and 1.0 % MC had red-purple hue, and with EL the tortilla showed red-orange hues. When cooking the tortilla, it lost 39 to 49.1 % of anthocyanins, regardless of how anthocyanins were added to the dough (MC or EL). The hardness of the tortilla increased with addition of anthocyanins in EL, but not in MC. The addition of anthocyanins increased TAC and TSP. AC of the tortilla in the pigment treatments was higher (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the control and reference.
    Study limitations: Results may change depending on the blue-purple maize grain used.
    Originality: There are no reports of similar studies.
    Conclusions: The addition of low amounts of anthocyanins (< 2 mg) to the blue-purple maize dough produces tortillas similar in color to traditional blue maize tortillas, and with higher AC.

  • Supplementation of blue-purple maize grain dough with microencapsulated anthocyanins or in extract diversifies the color of tortillas.
  • Adding anthocyanin microcapsules to blue-purple maize dough does not affect the texture of maize tortillas.
  • Low amounts of anthocyanins added (< 2 mg) to blue-purple maize dough increase antioxidant capacity of maize tortillas.
  • Maize tortillas with anthocyanins in microcapsules retain color better during storage compared to tortillas with anthocyanins in extract.
  •