Garcinia intermedia, a little-known fruit tree in the American tropics

10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.005

Received: 2021/03/16
Accepted: 2021/08/23
Available online: 2021-11-04

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     Vol. 27, issue 3 September - December 2021   Creative Commons License

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     Vol. 27, issue 3 September - December 2021  

 
  

Herbal extracts and alcohol increase vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’

Los extractos herbales y el alcohol prolongan la vida en florero de Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’

Davood Hashemabadi; Hassan Abedini Aboksari; Donya Hedayat Rad; Behzad Kaviani

Keywords: carnation, stem end blockage, water relations, vase life, enzymatic activity, secondary metabolites

10.5154/r.rchsh.2020.05.009

Received: 2020-05-14
Accepted: 2021-02-02
Available online: 2021-06-23
Pages:135-155

Some chemicals such as 8-HQS used for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers are harmful to human health. Therefore, it is necessary to identify natural compounds to delay senescence and the deterioration of cut flower tissues. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties can have a significant effect on the vase life of cut flowers. The objective was to compare the effect of essential oils (geranium [Pelargonium graveolens], caraway [Cuminum cyminum] and dill [Anethum graveolens]) against 8-HQS and alcohol on postharvest life, bacterial control and some qualitative characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’) flowers. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oils showed that the highest percentage of essences in geranium (13.03 %), caraway (26.05 %) and dill (52.23 %) were geraniol, methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal and linalool, respectively. Vase life increased to 15.43 and 15.11 days when using 100 mg·L-1 dill and 50 mg·L-1 geranium, respectively. Solution uptake (2.18 mL·g-1 FW) and the activity of catalase (1.78 μg·g-1 FW) were also highest in 100 mg·L-1 dill essential oil solution compared to distilled water (1.07 mL·g-1 FW and 0.90 μg·g-1 FW, respectively). The 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium, and 100 mg·L-1 caraway induced the longest vase life, with dill essential oil being the most suitable, effective and safest treatment.

  • The longest vase life was obtained with 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium and 100 mg·L-1 caraway.
  • The 100 mg·L-1 dill treatment had the highest water absorption, but there was no significant difference with 50 mg·L-1 geranium and 100 mg·L-1 cumin, and this shows a strong relationship between water absorption and vase life
  • Decreasing the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing catalase in superior treatments showed that the plant compounds used in this experiment were able to neutralize active oxygen because lipid peroxidation was minimized in these treatments.
  • Some chemicals such as 8-HQS used for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers are harmful to human health. Therefore, it is necessary to identify natural compounds to delay senescence and the deterioration of cut flower tissues. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties can have a significant effect on the vase life of cut flowers. The objective was to compare the effect of essential oils (geranium [Pelargonium graveolens], caraway [Cuminum cyminum] and dill [Anethum graveolens]) against 8-HQS and alcohol on postharvest life, bacterial control and some qualitative characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv ‘Yellow Candy’) flowers. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oils showed that the highest percentage of essences in geranium (13.03 %), caraway (26.05 %) and dill (52.23 %) were geraniol, methyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal and linalool, respectively. Vase life increased to 15.43 and 15.11 days when using 100 mg·L-1 dill and 50 mg·L-1 geranium, respectively. Solution uptake (2.18 mL·g-1 FW) and the activity of catalase (1.78 μg·g-1 FW) were also highest in 100 mg·L-1 dill essential oil solution compared to distilled water (1.07 mL·g-1 FW and 0.90 μg·g-1 FW, respectively). The 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium, and 100 mg·L-1 caraway induced the longest vase life, with dill essential oil being the most suitable, effective and safest treatment.

    • The longest vase life was obtained with 2 % alcohol, 100 mg·L-1 dill, 50 mg·L-1 geranium and 100 mg·L-1 caraway.
    • The 100 mg·L-1 dill treatment had the highest water absorption, but there was no significant difference with 50 mg·L-1 geranium and 100 mg·L-1 cumin, and this shows a strong relationship between water absorption and vase life
    • Decreasing the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing catalase in superior treatments showed that the plant compounds used in this experiment were able to neutralize active oxygen because lipid peroxidation was minimized in these treatments.
     

    The use of plant growth retardants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings

    Uso de retardadores de crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Norma Miguel-Zarate; Oscar Javier Ayala-Garay; Felipe Sánchez-Del Castillo; J. Jesús Magdaleno-Villar

    Keywords: intensive cultivation, growth retardant, seedbed, cycle reduction, triazoles

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.01.003

    Received: 2021-01-21
    Accepted: 2021-03-27
    Available online: 2021-06-23
    Pages:157-169

    An alternative tomato production system consists of establishing three short crop cycles per year and managed with a high population density (9 plants·m-2) and early blunting. For this purpose, it is necessary to extend the seedbed phase until two months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three growth retardants (Uniconazole, Paclobutrazol and Propiconazole) on the quality of DRD 8537 commercial hybrid tomato seedlings, with one or two applications (at 25 and 50 days after sowing [das]) and two doses per retardant (low and high). Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated at 31, 49 and 66 das. In addition, the leaf area, fresh weight, and dry matter content of the plants were evaluated at 66 das. The retardants affected height, diameter, fresh weight, and dry matter. The number of applications had no significant effect, and the high dose reduced height and leaf area. The retardants allowed extending seedling time on the seedbed until two months without affecting plant quality. Paclobutrazol was the retardant with the best response in terms of reducing height and leaf area, resulting in more compact seedlings.

  • How to obtain compact, vigorous two-month-old seedlings with thick stems.
  • Knowing the precise dose and the right moment of application of the growth retardants in tomato allows lengthening the seedbed phase without affecting the quality of the seedlings.
  • By keeping the seedling in the seedbed for longer, the crop production area can be used intensively for longer periods.
  • The generation of seedlings with reduced leaf area allows increasing plant density for short production cycles in tomato.
  • An alternative tomato production system consists of establishing three short crop cycles per year and managed with a high population density (9 plants·m-2) and early blunting. For this purpose, it is necessary to extend the seedbed phase until two months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three growth retardants (Uniconazole, Paclobutrazol and Propiconazole) on the quality of DRD 8537 commercial hybrid tomato seedlings, with one or two applications (at 25 and 50 days after sowing [das]) and two doses per retardant (low and high). Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were evaluated at 31, 49 and 66 das. In addition, the leaf area, fresh weight, and dry matter content of the plants were evaluated at 66 das. The retardants affected height, diameter, fresh weight, and dry matter. The number of applications had no significant effect, and the high dose reduced height and leaf area. The retardants allowed extending seedling time on the seedbed until two months without affecting plant quality. Paclobutrazol was the retardant with the best response in terms of reducing height and leaf area, resulting in more compact seedlings.

    • How to obtain compact, vigorous two-month-old seedlings with thick stems.
    • Knowing the precise dose and the right moment of application of the growth retardants in tomato allows lengthening the seedbed phase without affecting the quality of the seedlings.
    • By keeping the seedling in the seedbed for longer, the crop production area can be used intensively for longer periods.
    • The generation of seedlings with reduced leaf area allows increasing plant density for short production cycles in tomato.
     

    Rice husk biochar as a substrate for growth of cucumber seedlings

    Biocarbón de cascarilla de arroz como sustrato en el crecimiento de plántulas de pepino

    Carlos Alberto Pérez-Cabrera; Porfirio Juárez-López; José Anzaldo-Hernández; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Salomé Gayosso-Rodríguez; Eduardo Salcedo-Pérez; Dagoberto Guillén-Sánchez; Rosendo Balois-Morales; Lourdes G. Cabrera-Chavarría

    Keywords: Cucumis sativus, hydrothermal carbonization, growing media, physical and chemical properties, soilless culture

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.01.002

    Received: 2021-01-10
    Accepted: 2021-03-27
    Available online: 2021-06-23
    Pages:171-183

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from plant residues and obtained by thermochemical techniques in an oxygen-limited environment or in the absence of it. The aim was to evaluate the physical properties of mixtures of rice husk biochar as a substrate component and their effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings. The treatments were: rice husk biochar (BC) and commercial peat moss (T; Sunshine mix 3), as well as mixtures of both in different proportions (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 %, respectively). For physical characterization, particle size, bulk density, total porosity, aeration porosity and water-holding porosity were evaluated. Additionally, nutrient concentration was determined. To evaluate the effect of biochar on cucumber seedling growth, stem length, fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, leaf area, dry weight of aerial and root biomass, and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD readings) were considered. It was found that the addition of up to 40 % BC to the universal growth medium (peat moss) does not alter the physical properties of total porosity, aeration porosity, and water-holding porosity; furthermore, the growth of cucumber seedlings in a 20 % BC mixture is similar in stem length, fresh biomass, dry biomass and leaf area to seedlings grown with 100 % peat moss.

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from plant residues and obtained by thermochemical techniques in an oxygen-limited environment or in the absence of it. The aim was to evaluate the physical properties of mixtures of rice husk biochar as a substrate component and their effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings. The treatments were: rice husk biochar (BC) and commercial peat moss (T; Sunshine mix 3), as well as mixtures of both in different proportions (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 %, respectively). For physical characterization, particle size, bulk density, total porosity, aeration porosity and water-holding porosity were evaluated. Additionally, nutrient concentration was determined. To evaluate the effect of biochar on cucumber seedling growth, stem length, fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, leaf area, dry weight of aerial and root biomass, and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD readings) were considered. It was found that the addition of up to 40 % BC to the universal growth medium (peat moss) does not alter the physical properties of total porosity, aeration porosity, and water-holding porosity; furthermore, the growth of cucumber seedlings in a 20 % BC mixture is similar in stem length, fresh biomass, dry biomass and leaf area to seedlings grown with 100 % peat moss.

     

    Study of inbreeding in tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)

    Estudio de la endogamia en tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)

    César Augusto Barrera-Irigoyen; Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; Natanael Magaña-Lira; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; Mario Pérez-Grajales

    Keywords: inbreeding depression, mating systems, half-sib families, full-sib families

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.006

    Received: 2020/03/19
    Accepted: 2021/07/26
    Available online: 2021-09-03
    Pages:185-198

    Only intervarietal and interfamilial hybridization can be carried out in tomatillo. Therefore, the objective was to study the effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo obtained through three generations of mating by fraternal and plant-to-plant crosses. The varieties studied were Tecozautla, Diamante, Manzano and Morado, each represented by three maternal half-sib families (Generation 1). In 2018, plant-to-plant and fraternal crosses were made in selected plants within each family, resulting in full-sib (FSF) and maternal half-sib (MHSF) families, respectively (Generation 2). In 2019, the process was repeated in Generation 2 families, and another generation of FSFs and MHSFs (Generation 3) was obtained. Field evaluation was conducted in 2020. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used, and yield per plant was evaluated in two harvests and total yield per plant, as well as fruit weight, volume and bulk density, in each harvest and average of harvests. Inbreeding depression occurred among generations. Fruit yield, size and volume in the first harvest decreased over generations. The Tecozautla and Diamante varieties showed greater inbreeding depression. The type of cross had a different effect depending on the variety. Fruit size was lower in plant-to-plant crosses in Tecozautla, Diamante and Morado; that is, they generated greater inbreeding depression than the fraternal crosses.

  • The effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo was studied.
  • There was inbreeding depression among generations.
  • Tecozautla and Diamante varieties presented the greatest inbreeding depression.
  • The mating system had a different effect depending on the variety.
  • Only intervarietal and interfamilial hybridization can be carried out in tomatillo. Therefore, the objective was to study the effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo obtained through three generations of mating by fraternal and plant-to-plant crosses. The varieties studied were Tecozautla, Diamante, Manzano and Morado, each represented by three maternal half-sib families (Generation 1). In 2018, plant-to-plant and fraternal crosses were made in selected plants within each family, resulting in full-sib (FSF) and maternal half-sib (MHSF) families, respectively (Generation 2). In 2019, the process was repeated in Generation 2 families, and another generation of FSFs and MHSFs (Generation 3) was obtained. Field evaluation was conducted in 2020. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used, and yield per plant was evaluated in two harvests and total yield per plant, as well as fruit weight, volume and bulk density, in each harvest and average of harvests. Inbreeding depression occurred among generations. Fruit yield, size and volume in the first harvest decreased over generations. The Tecozautla and Diamante varieties showed greater inbreeding depression. The type of cross had a different effect depending on the variety. Fruit size was lower in plant-to-plant crosses in Tecozautla, Diamante and Morado; that is, they generated greater inbreeding depression than the fraternal crosses.

    • The effect of inbreeding in families of four varieties of tomatillo was studied.
    • There was inbreeding depression among generations.
    • Tecozautla and Diamante varieties presented the greatest inbreeding depression.
    • The mating system had a different effect depending on the variety.
     

    Lead recovery in artificially contaminated agricultural soil as a remediation strategy using sunflower and vermicompost

    Recuperación de plomo en suelo agrícola contaminado artificialmente como estrategia de remediación mediante girasol y vermicompost

    Guido Sarmiento-Sarmiento; Shadai Febres-Flores

    Keywords: lead removal, bioconcentration, translocation, Helianthus annuus

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.04.007

    Received: 2020/03/15
    Accepted: 2021/08/23
    Available online: 2021-09-03
    Pages:199-212

    Lead (Pb) contamination is an environmental problem that deteriorates the quality of agricultural soils; therefore, it is a priority to evaluate remediation strategies for its recovery. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and vermicompost in the remediation of agricultural soils artificially contaminated with Pb. The treatments studied were: T1 (soil with Pb, vermicompost and sunflower), T2 (soil with Pb and vermicompost), T3 (soil with Pb and sunflower) and T4 (soil with Pb). The initial Pb value in the soil was 16.05 ppm, and 105 ppm Pb were added by dissolving Pb(NO3)2, reaching a concentration of 121.05 ppm as the initial level, higher than the national environmental quality standard (EQS) for agricultural soils (70 ppm Pb). All treatments reduced the Pb concentration in the soil below the EQS. T2 stood out by achieving a Pb recovery of 81.21 %. The Pb bioconcentration factor (BF) in the aerial part and roots of sunflower plants (T1 and T3) registered values of less than one, acting as an exclusive plant species. According to the Pb translocation factor (TF), sunflower in the presence of vermicompost (T1) behaved as a Pb phytostabilizing plant (TF < 1), and in the absence of vermicompost (T3) it proved to be a Pb phytoextractor (TF > 1).

    Lead (Pb) contamination is an environmental problem that deteriorates the quality of agricultural soils; therefore, it is a priority to evaluate remediation strategies for its recovery. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and vermicompost in the remediation of agricultural soils artificially contaminated with Pb. The treatments studied were: T1 (soil with Pb, vermicompost and sunflower), T2 (soil with Pb and vermicompost), T3 (soil with Pb and sunflower) and T4 (soil with Pb). The initial Pb value in the soil was 16.05 ppm, and 105 ppm Pb were added by dissolving Pb(NO3)2, reaching a concentration of 121.05 ppm as the initial level, higher than the national environmental quality standard (EQS) for agricultural soils (70 ppm Pb). All treatments reduced the Pb concentration in the soil below the EQS. T2 stood out by achieving a Pb recovery of 81.21 %. The Pb bioconcentration factor (BF) in the aerial part and roots of sunflower plants (T1 and T3) registered values of less than one, acting as an exclusive plant species. According to the Pb translocation factor (TF), sunflower in the presence of vermicompost (T1) behaved as a Pb phytostabilizing plant (TF < 1), and in the absence of vermicompost (T3) it proved to be a Pb phytoextractor (TF > 1).

     

    GENETIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) CHF1 CULTIVAR

    Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; José D. Molina-Galán; Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos; J. Ortíz-Cereceres; F. Márquez-Sánchez; T. Cervantez-Santana; J.F. Santiaguillo-Hernández

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.046

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ON-FARM GENETIC DIVERSITY AND CROPPING SYSTEM OF Phaseolus vulgaris AND Vigna unguiculata AT THE CHONTALPA REGION IN TABASCO, MÉXICO

    Luz del C. Lagunes-Espinoza; F. Gallardo-López; H. Becerril-Hernández; E.D. Bolaños-Aguilar

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.11.047

    Received: 2006-11-08
    Accepted: 2007-08-14
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    PLANT PHENOLOGY, YIELD AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) ANA CULTIVAR SELECTIONS AT AGUASCALIENTES

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.05.026

    Received: 2007-05-14
    Accepted: 2007-08-06
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS AND INLFLUENCE IN THE TOMATO CROP (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL)

    E. Utria-Borges; J.A. Cabrera-Rodriguez; I.M. Reynaldo-Escobar; D. Morales-Guevara; A.M. Fernández; E. Toledo-Toledo

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.009

    Received: 2006-02-04
    Accepted: 2007-05-16
    Available online: 2016-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SAPOTE MAMEY FRUITS (Pouteria sapota), IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF MORELOS

    A. Gaona-García; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Víctor López-Martínez; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Oscar Gabriel Villegas-Torres

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.013

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    WATER DEFICIT AND CROP LOAD EFFECTS ON YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.014

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-06-26
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    NITRIC NUTRITION, AND IRRIGATION SYSTEMS EFFECTS ON STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) FLAVOR

    L.A. Ojeda-Real; R. Cárdenas-Navaro; Phillipe Lobbit; O. Grageda-Cabrera; E. Valencia-Cantero; L. Macías-Rodriguez

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.015

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007/08/30
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    EFFECT OF ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID AND Bacillus subtilis ON Cucumber mosaic virus GOURD INFECTION

    E. Maldonado-Cruz; D. Ochoa-Martínez; Bertha Tlapal-Bolaños

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.010

    Received: 2007-02-12
    Accepted: 2007-08-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    RIPENING SEASON AND FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE GENOTYPES AT CADEREYTA, QUERETARO

    D. Mendoza-González; Ramón Álvar Martínez-Peniche; M.R. Fernández-Montes; Agustín Rumayor-Flores; E. Castillo-Castañeda

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.02.011

    Received: 2007-02-19
    Accepted: 2007-09-11
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    SYSTEMIC FUNGICIDES EVALUATION FOR DOWNY MILDEW CONTROL (Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk. & Curt.) Rost. ON CANTALOUPE MELON (Cucumis melo L.)

    E. Ruíz-Sánchez; J.M. Tún-Suárez; L.L. Pinzón-López; G. Valerio-Hernández; M.J. Zavala-León

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2005.09.034

    Received: 2005-09-07
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    HARVEST DELAY IN CACTUS PEAR cv. CRISTALINA

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2006.02.016

    Received: 2006-02-14
    Accepted: 2007-09-28
    Available online: 2016-07-01

    ‘AUTUMN BLISS’ RED RASPBERRY PHENOLOGY AT GUERRERO, CHIHUAHUA STATE, MEXICO

    Rafael Parra-Quezada; M.R. Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar; Jesús Guadalupe Arreola-Ávila

    10.5154/r.rchsh.2007.04.024

    Received: 2007-04-23
    Accepted: 2007-10-03
    Available online: 2016-07-01

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