ISSN e: 2007-4026 / ISSN print:2007-3925

       

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

    Volume 7, Issue 2 July - December 2015   Creative Commons License

      
 

    7 July - December 2015  

   Creative Commons License

 
  
 
 
  • Foliar temperature on husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) under water stress

  • Comportamiento de la temperatura foliar de tomate de cáscara  (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) bajo estrés hídrico

Pablo Zarazúa-Bolaños; Enrique Rico-García; Adán Mercado-Luna; Oscar Alatorre-Jacome; Perla Valeria Munguía-Fragoso; Genaro Martín Soto-Zarazúa

phytomonitoring, infrared, statistical correlations, irrigation

10.5154/r.inagbi.2015.05.004

Received: 05-04-2015
Accepted: 10-09-2015
Available online: 2015-10-28
Pages:49-60

The efficiency of water use in intensive greenhouse production can mean reduction in fertilization costs and less environmental pollution, mainly salinization of soils. This efficiency depends on the type of control in the irrigation system, either periods, solar radiation, ambient temperature, water availability in the substrate or by algorithms that combine some of the variables mentioned. However, all these variables are exogenous to the crop and it is the crop which presents water demand and the need for nutrients; therefore, phytomonitoring systems measuring the variables of the crop should be used to control irrigation in greenhouses. This research studies the foliar temperature as a parameter that contributes to the control of an irrigation system. A husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) crop, grown on pumice stone, was subjected to different periods without irrigation 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Foliar temperature was measured using an infrared sensor. Thermal gradients between treatments were detected, indicating that foliar temperature of the crop can be used as extra variable for irrigation control. The correlation coefficient (R2) between foliar temperature and greenhouse climate variables (relative humidity, solar radiation and ambient temperature) was calculated; for the first two R2 was less than 0.47 and R2 for air temperature values were between 0.65 and 0.75.

The efficiency of water use in intensive greenhouse production can mean reduction in fertilization costs and less environmental pollution, mainly salinization of soils. This efficiency depends on the type of control in the irrigation system, either periods, solar radiation, ambient temperature, water availability in the substrate or by algorithms that combine some of the variables mentioned. However, all these variables are exogenous to the crop and it is the crop which presents water demand and the need for nutrients; therefore, phytomonitoring systems measuring the variables of the crop should be used to control irrigation in greenhouses. This research studies the foliar temperature as a parameter that contributes to the control of an irrigation system. A husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) crop, grown on pumice stone, was subjected to different periods without irrigation 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Foliar temperature was measured using an infrared sensor. Thermal gradients between treatments were detected, indicating that foliar temperature of the crop can be used as extra variable for irrigation control. The correlation coefficient (R2) between foliar temperature and greenhouse climate variables (relative humidity, solar radiation and ambient temperature) was calculated; for the first two R2 was less than 0.47 and R2 for air temperature values were between 0.65 and 0.75.

 
 
  • Behavior of “tomatillo” husk tomato fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) with and without calyx in a modified atmosphere

  • Comportamiento de frutos de tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) con cáliz y sin cáliz en atmósfera modificada

Nilfra Cecilia Flores-Flores; Anabel Gerónimo-Cruz; Salvador Valle-Guadarrama; Teresa Monroy-Gutiérrez; Adalberto Gómez-Cruz; Irán Alia-Tejacal

respiration rate, non-climacteric fruit, anaerobic metabolites.

10.5154/r.inagbi.2015.09.006

Received: 09-09-2015
Accepted: 04-12-2015
Available online: 2015-12-24
Pages:61-74

The behavior of untouched (with calyx) and removed husk (without calyx) “tomatillo” husk tomato fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) was evaluated in postharvest, for four weeks, at 20 °C, in modified atmosphere technology (MAP), with plastic films brands Bol Rol® (BR; 25 cm × 38 cm, 16.8 mm thick) and Ziploc® (ZP; 27 cm × 28 cm, 52.2 mm thick). The removal of calyx caused a reduction in the rate of O2 consumption, loss of water and loss of firmness; for that reason, the removal of husk was considered to be a beneficial practice. There was no significant effect in the total soluble solids contents, nor the acidity, sugars or color attributes, which was also considered to be beneficial since the parameters that define the quality of the fruit were not altered. By using plastic bags, the O2 concentration was reduced and the CO2 concentration increased in the fruit environment. The Ziploc® bags allowed higher values of firmness; thus, they were considered better than the Bol Rol® ones to implement MAP. The removal husk reduced the risk of fermentative metabolism and for a 20 °C condition it is recommended handling tomatillo, husk tomato with removed husk for 13 days in modified atmosphere.

The behavior of untouched (with calyx) and removed husk (without calyx) “tomatillo” husk tomato fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) was evaluated in postharvest, for four weeks, at 20 °C, in modified atmosphere technology (MAP), with plastic films brands Bol Rol® (BR; 25 cm × 38 cm, 16.8 mm thick) and Ziploc® (ZP; 27 cm × 28 cm, 52.2 mm thick). The removal of calyx caused a reduction in the rate of O2 consumption, loss of water and loss of firmness; for that reason, the removal of husk was considered to be a beneficial practice. There was no significant effect in the total soluble solids contents, nor the acidity, sugars or color attributes, which was also considered to be beneficial since the parameters that define the quality of the fruit were not altered. By using plastic bags, the O2 concentration was reduced and the CO2 concentration increased in the fruit environment. The Ziploc® bags allowed higher values of firmness; thus, they were considered better than the Bol Rol® ones to implement MAP. The removal husk reduced the risk of fermentative metabolism and for a 20 °C condition it is recommended handling tomatillo, husk tomato with removed husk for 13 days in modified atmosphere.

 
 
  • Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with 35,000 ppm of waste motor oil

  • Fitorremediación de suelo contaminado con 35,000 ppm de aceite residual automotriz

Iván Balderas-León; Nabanita Dasgupta-Schubert; Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

hydrocarbons, mineralization, phytotolerance, rhizobacteria, Sorghum vulgare.

10.5154/r.inagbi.2015.10.007

Received: 07-10-2015
Accepted: 15-12-2015
Available online: 2015-12-24
Pages:75-87

Soil contaminated with 35,000 ppm of waste motor oil (WMO) is a relatively high concentration according to the Mexican standard NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SSA1-2003. WMO is toxic to microbial life and plants, although some of the latter have oil tolerance and degradation mechanisms in their roots, enhanced by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR). The aim of this study was to perform phytoremediation using Sorghum vulgare inoculated with Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia of soil contaminated with 35,000 ppm of WMO. The results showed that WMO-damaged soil did not inhibit germination of S. vulgare seed. At seedling stage, WMO was phytotoxic, but at flowering S. vulgare with B. cereus and B. cepacia tolerated phytotoxicity and reduced it to 800 ppm after 90 days, a value below the maximum allowable by NOM-138. This suggests that the physiological ability of S. vulgare and the plant growth promoting activity and WMO-oxidizing action of PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of this soil.

Soil contaminated with 35,000 ppm of waste motor oil (WMO) is a relatively high concentration according to the Mexican standard NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SSA1-2003. WMO is toxic to microbial life and plants, although some of the latter have oil tolerance and degradation mechanisms in their roots, enhanced by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR). The aim of this study was to perform phytoremediation using Sorghum vulgare inoculated with Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia of soil contaminated with 35,000 ppm of WMO. The results showed that WMO-damaged soil did not inhibit germination of S. vulgare seed. At seedling stage, WMO was phytotoxic, but at flowering S. vulgare with B. cereus and B. cepacia tolerated phytotoxicity and reduced it to 800 ppm after 90 days, a value below the maximum allowable by NOM-138. This suggests that the physiological ability of S. vulgare and the plant growth promoting activity and WMO-oxidizing action of PGPB enhanced phytoremediation of this soil.