ISSN e: 2007-4018 / ISSN print: 2007-3828

English | Español

# Vol. XIX, issue 1 January - April 2013

### TRAPPING OF Phytophthora cinnamomi IN OAK FORESTS WITH TWO ORNAMENTAL SPECIES AND INDUCTION OF SPORULATION.

#### TRAMPEO DE Phytophthora cinnamomi EN BOSQUE DE ENCINO CON DOS ESPECIES ORNAMENTALES E INDUCCIÓN DE SU ESPORULACIÓN.

Keywords: Soil, oak, camellia, azalea, sporangia.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.09.062

Accepted: 2012-08-28
Available online:
Pages:5-12

Oak mortality has increased in recent years in several Mexican states. The etiology in many cases is unknown. In the states of Colima, Jalisco and Guerrero, where the cause is known, the oak forests are being affected by the “ink disease” (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rand). The presenting symptoms of diseased trees are: chlorosis, necrosis, wilting, cankers with dark exudates on the bark of the trunk and dieback. Given the impact of the disease and the difficulty of isolating the pathogen from cortical tissue and inducing sporulation in it, this study aimed to (i) evaluate the efficiency of two trap plants, Camellia japonica and Rhododendron indicum (L). Sweet, using a soil suspension and (ii) induce sporulation of the pathogen. To this end, 6 mm discs containing leaf tissue of the trap species were embedded in a soil suspension for 24 and 48 h before being plated in PARPH selective medium. The species R. indicum showed higher capture effectiveness, 64.10 %, compared with 6.83 % for C. japonica. For sporulation, a water-soil mixture (350 mL-200 g) gave the best results.

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### DESIGN OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM TO DETERMINE ECOTOURISM SUITABILITY OF FOREST AREAS

#### DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE CÓMPUTO PARA DETERMINAR APTITUD ECOTURÍSTICA DE ÁREAS FORESTALES

Marcelino A. Pérez-Vivar; Manuel de J. González-Guillén; J. René Valdez-Lazalde; Héctor M. de los Santos-Posadas; Gregorio Ángeles-Pérez

Keywords: Software, suitability, GIS, multiple criteria evaluation, ecotourism.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.11.083

Accepted: 2012-10-17
Available online:
Pages:13 - 28

The aim of this study was to design and develop a computer system (software) capable of generating ecotourism suitability maps. Therefore, a conceptual model was structured combining GIS and multicriteria evaluation tools in a decision- making environment. The software design was performed according to the conceptual model and, lastly, the design was coded in the programming language Visual Basic®. As input values, the system uses criteria and indicators (mappable) for the proper development of any ecotourism interest and corresponding thematic maps. The output information is the raster map whose cells have gradient values ranging from 0 to 1, which represents the cell’s ability to develop the evaluated ecotourism activity. This system can be a valuable, effective and efficient tool in the decision-making process and land use planning.

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### CLOUD FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS: AN ASSESSMENT IN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

#### BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA Y ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA EVALUACIÓN EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

Keywords: Fog forest, niche, impact, vulnerability.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.03.029

Accepted: 2012-09-20
Available online:
Pages:29 - 43

The habitat of eight forest species (Liquidambar macrophylla, Alnus arguta, Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra mexicana, Pinus patula, Nectandra sanguínea, Podocarpus reichei and Quercus spp.) representative of cloud forest in the state of Hidalgo was assessed under current and projected climate conditions. We used the ecological niche conceptual framework and considered twelve variables: one related to topography, five to landscape and six to climate. An ecological niche factorial analysis was carried out with Biomapper software. Habitat suitability maps were obtained for each forest species by changing six climatic variables for each climate change model applied, generating the same number of maps for future conditions. We analyzed the differences in suitable habitat for current conditions and those projected by climate change, finding that the optimal growth area for six species may be reduced. The species identified as threatened by climate change are L. macrophylla, A. arguta, C. caroliniana, C. mexicana, P. patula, and N. sanguinea, which comprise mainly the high tree layer of the cloud forest. We therefore conclude that the ecosystem can be seriously affected by climate change.

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### THE PROCESSES OF DESERTIFICATION AND ARID REGIONS

#### LOS PROCESOS DE DESERTIFICACIÓN Y LAS REGIONES ÁRIDAS

Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Miguel Á. Hernández-García; Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón; Pablo Ruíz-Puga

Keywords: Climate, vegetation, soil, erosion.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.10.077

Accepted: 2012-11-28
Available online:
Pages:45 - 66

This paper presents a review of desertification, a process of degradation of the productive capacity of the land, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Because desertification increases gradually, the reasons why this worldwide phenomenon occurs and worsens were studied. In general, desertification results from the combined pressure of an adverse and fluctuating climate and overexploitation of natural resources. Aspects related to the extent and severity ofdesertification worldwide are explored, as well as the particularities of land degradation in Mexico. Moreover, the characteristics of desertification processes are outlined, taking into account the intricate network of relationships between environmental conditions and productive activities and their effects on biotic, edaphic and hydrological resources. Finally, a series of proposals relating to the application of preventative and corrective measures that tend to prevent and curb desertification are presented.

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### AGROFORESTRY CHARACTERIZATION IN TRADITIONAL AND RUSTIC COFFEE SYSTEMS IN SAN MIGUEL, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

#### CARACTERIZACIÓN AGROFORESTAL EN SISTEMAS DE CAFÉ TRADICIONAL Y RÚSTICO, EN SAN MIGUEL, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

Luis Villavicencio-Enríquez

Keywords: Agroforestry, palms, forest products, sustainability.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2010.08.051

Accepted: 2012-12-04
Available online:
Pages:67 - 80

Agroforestry characterizations were conducted in rustic and traditional coffee plantations in San Miguel, Amatlan de los Reyes, Veracruz, Mexico. The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare these systems. Results indicate that both systems gained similar economic benefits, although the species composition of the canopy and products obtained are different. Timber (Cedrela odorata, Robinsonella mirandae and Mastichodendron capirii), coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) and palms (Chamaedorae tepejilote and Chamaedorae elegans) are the main economic products. The benefit/cost ratio acquired by selling agricultural and forest products shows a greater economic profit for rustic coffee system ($20,784.00·year-1·ha-1) compared to traditional coffee system ($ 19,236.00·year-1·ha-1). Although both systems have relatively good gains, the effect that the rustic coffee system has on forest resources may be shortly sustainable over time, because reforestation does not occur in this case. Traditional coffee system is in a better condition of sustainability and long-term production, because the elements used in the marketing of timber and fuel are reforested due to their commercial importance.

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### SOFTWARE TO IDENTIFY CLIMATE CHANGE TRENDS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL: A STUDY CASE IN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

#### SOFTWARE PARA IDENTIFICAR LAS TENDENCIAS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO A NIVEL LOCAL: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

Francisco Bautista; Dorian A. Bautista-Hernández; Oscar Álvarez; María Anaya-Romero; Diego de la Rosa

Keywords: Humidity index, climatic indexes, evapotranspiration, temperature.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.09.073

Accepted: 2013-01-14
Available online:
Pages:81 - 90

The present work shows the architecture and capabilities of the software titled “Data Analysis System for monitoring regional and local climate change with agroclimatic indexes” (Moclic). The software works as: a) a database; b) a processing tool of agroclimatic data; and c) a tool for identifying local climate change trends. The advantages of using Moclic include its capacity for evaluating climate change within a graphical user interface. The software requires input data from weather stations containing the following information: station name, key number, locality and state, monthly average, minimum and maximum temperatures, monthly precipitation and the geographic coordinates of the station. Moclic can process the input data and calculate derived variables related to potential evapotranspiration and monthly and annual indexes for humidity, aridity, the growing season, precipitation concentration, erodibility, and soil leaching. Moclic software works in both English and Spanish. Finally, a case study of the Abalá station in the state of Yucatán, México is presented in order to show the applicability of Moclic at the local level. The results from the case study show the high accuracy of the Moclic for the prediction of climate change trends throughout the last 40 years, and suggest its high potential to be used in new climate scenarios.

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### TREE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF A FRAGMENT OF CLOUD FOREST IN VERACRUZ STATE

#### ESTRUCTURA Y COMPOSICIÓN ARBÓREA DE UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA EN EL ESTADO DE VERACRUZ

Yureli García-De la Cruz; Luis A. Olivares-López; José M. Ramos-Prado

Keywords: Tropical montane cloud forest, floristic diversity, Quercus salicifolia-Liquidambar styraciflua, México.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.03.025

Accepted: 2013-01-21
Available online:
Pages:91 - 101

The tree structure and composition in a fragment of cloud forest in the central region of Veracruz state were analyzed using three 2,000 m2 transects, in which dasometric data were taken from all individuals with DBH > greater than 10 cm. We found 239 individuals belonging to 14 species, 12 genera and 12 families. The family Fagaceae was dominant in the sampling areas. Quercus salicifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus leiophylla and Alchornea latifolia were the most important species. They showed significant allometric relationships between the variables coverage-DBH, and height-DBH (except A. latifolia). We propose a possible synecological variant of cloud forest through the association Q. salicifolia-L. styraciflua, which reflects the low species richness reported.

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### Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, FOREST SPECIES WITH POTENTIAL TO BE SUBMITTED IN SYLVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS

#### Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, ESPECIE FORESTAL CON POTENCIAL PARA SER INTRODUCIDA EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

María L. Román-Miranda; Luis A. Martínez-Rosas; Antonio Mora-Santacruz; Pablo Torres-Morán; Agustín Gallegos-Rodríguez; Adriana Avendaño-López

Keywords: scarification, dry matter, crude protein, pH and diversity of uses.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.09.070

Accepted: 2013-01-01
Available online:
Pages:103 - 114

The usefulness of forest species in agricultural production systems is an option that helps to reduce the pressure in natural forests; they can also be used in treeless areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, germination, development of seedlings grown in nursery and variety of uses of Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. Edible material and seeds were collected in Tomatlán, Jalisco. Bromatologic analyses, scarification tests and the evaluation of seedlings grown in nursery using three soils with different pH values were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with Tukey (P≤0.05) test for media comparison. A survey study, bibliographical revision and review of specimens in the herbariums were used to know the local and potential diversity of uses of this specie. Results show high content of dry matter (97.40 %) and crude protein (29.05 %), greater germination using heat treatments, better seedling development in slightly acid soil (6.57) and the diversity of uses including firewood, forage and timber among others. L. lanceolata represents a viable option to be used in dry tropical silvopastoral systems due to the high nutritional value and the diversity of uses in rural areas.

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### TANNIN CONTENT IN THE BARK OF TWO SPECIES OF PARACATA (Erythroxylon compactum Rose and Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby)

#### CONTENIDO DE TANINOS EN LA CORTEZA DE DOS ESPECIES DE PARÁCATA (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby)

Serafín Colín-Urieta; Héctor G. Ochoa-Ruiz; José G. Rutiaga-Quiñones

Keywords: Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, tanning, physical testing of leather, tear load, tensile strength.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.03.026

Accepted: 2013-02-06
Available online:
Pages:115 - 124

Tannins were obtained from Parácata (Erythroxylon compactum Rose and Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby) bark by aqueous extraction using a 2k experimental design, with k = 4 and n = 2. The factors and levels were: Factor A = particle size (0.417, 6.68 mm), Factor B = extraction time (120, 180 min), Factor C = extraction temperature (80, 87 °C), Factor D = solid-liquid ratio (1:15, 1:12). The tanning quality of the tannins was evaluated. A deerskin was tanned using S. skinneri tannins and its tear load and tensile strength were determined. Test results for the physical and mechanical properties of the tanned leather were higher than the minimum values recommended by Mexican standards. We therefore conclude that the tannins in S. skinneri bark are suitable for use in tanning.

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### CARBON BASELINE IN A MIXED PINE-OAK FOREST IN THE JUAREZ MOUNTAIN RANGE (OAXACA, MEXICO) USING THE CO2FIX V.3.2 MODEL

#### LÍNEA BASE DE CARBONO EN BOSQUE MIXTO DE PINO-ENCINO DE LA SIERRA JUÁREZ (OAXACA, MÉXICO). APLICACIÓN DEL MODELO CO2FIX V.3.2

Sergio Álvarez; Agustín Rubio

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, biomass estimation, allometric equations, reservoirs.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.01.005

Accepted: 2013-02-08
Available online:
Pages:125 - 137

Forest stands play a key role in carbon (C) sequestration. Numerous methods and models have been developed to estimate the carbon reservoirs and flows present in these ecosystems. In this study, the CO2FIX v.3.2 simulation model was used to analyse the C baseline in a pine-oak forest in the Juarez Mountain Range (“Sierra Juarez”), Oaxaca, Mexico. The first aim was to compare the results of this model with results obtained by direct sampling and allometric equations. Moreover, a second objective was to identify the elements which constitute the C baseline for a possible assessment of further forestry management which includes the environmental service of C sequestration. Once the data were obtained and results compared with previous studies, it was found that the CO2FIX v3.2 model is capable of determining the C reservoirs and flows in these ecosystems simply and efficiently, thereby enabling estimation of the C baseline. This provides communities with limited economic resources access to a tool which is capable of assessing the ability to sequestrate C and receive support as part of the environmental service of C sequestration.

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### MEASURING AND ESTIMATING THE BELOW-CANOPY LIGHT ENVIRONMENT IN A FOREST. A REVIEW

#### MEDICIÓN Y ESTIMACIÓN DEL AMBIENTE LUMÍNICO EN EL INTERIOR DEL BOSQUE. UNA REVISIÓN

Álvaro Promis

Keywords: Solar radiation, light, direct measurement, indirect estimation, below-canopy environment.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.02.014

Accepted: 2013-02-12
Available online:
Pages:139 - 146

The below-canopy light environment influences the survival, the tree regeneration growth and the development of the understory plant species. Therefore, there has been much interest in measuring the below-canopy light environment. Several instruments, techniques and methods have been developed to measure directly or to estimate indirectly the below-canopy light environment. To date, many comparisons of direct and indirect methods for the measuring and estimation of below-canopy light environment have been conducted in order to determine the best way to measure the light in the understory. In this review a scientific description of the currently instruments, techniques and methods used to measure or to estimate the below-canopy solar radiation is shown. The nature and properties of the different methods, techniques and instruments are commented. Finally, the choice of equipment to meet the needs of the researcher in this topic is supported.

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### LITTERFALL PRODUCTION IN A Pinus cembroides ZUCC. STAND, IN ARTEAGA COAHUILA MEXICO AND ITS RELATIONSHIPS TO CLIMATIC VARIABLES

#### PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA EN UN RODAL DE Pinus cembroides Zucc. EN ARTEAGA, COAHUILA, MÉXICO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS VARIABLES CLIMÁTICAS

Keywords: Litterfall, organic matter, pinyon pine, temperature.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.01.006

Accepted: 2013-02-21
Available online:
Pages:147 - 155

Litterfall represents the main source of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems. The assessment of litterfall production is important to understand the forest productivity, but it also provides important information as phenological indicator of the climate change effects. This study was carried out in a young Pinus cembroides Zucc. stand in La Sierra de Arteaga, Coahuila, Mexico. Litterfall was collected monthly using 40 traps (1 m2) located systematically on 1-ha plot. The Kruskal-Wallis non parametric test was employed to detect significant differences among sampling dates. The stepwise regression and the principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships of litterfall to climatic variables. Total annual litterfall was over 1000 kg.ha-1.year-1, which was dependent on temperature and wind. Needles and branches comprised about 33 and 22 % of the total litterfall.

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### SOIL ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST CONDITIONS: MONARCH BUTTERFLY BIOSPHERE RESERVE, MEXICO

#### CONTENIDO DE CARBONO ORGÁNICO EN EL SUELO BAJO DIFERENTES CONDICIONES FORESTALES: RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA MARIPOSA MONARCA, MÉXICO

Francisco Bautista; Silvia Pérez-Ramírez; M. Isabel Ramírez; Pablo F. Jaramillo-López

Keywords: Soil carbon, soil degradation, forest disturbance, forest harvesting, monarch butterfly habitat.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2012.06.042

Accepted: 2013-03-05
Available online:
Pages:157 - 173

Globally, the soil stores twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and nearly twice the amount stored in vegetation. Carbon storing capacity of the soil depends on its properties and land use. The aim of this study was to analyze the soil organic carbon content under different forest conditions within mountainous forests of the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. We defined six sampling groups based on three forest conditions (conserved, harvested and disturbed) and two vegetation types (sacred fir and pine-oak). We calculated the carbon stock of four complete soil profiles in each group (N=24), starting with the A horizon. Results show differences in SOC content in soils under different forest types and forest conditions. Conserved sacred fir stands have an average SOC of 153 MgC·ha-1, while harvested and disturbed stands have 95 and 125 MgC·ha-1, respectively. In the pine-oak forests, average SOC content of conserved stands is 103 MgC·ha-1, while harvested and disturbed stands are 39 and 13 MgC·ha-1, respectively. Conserved forests hold 40-80 % of SOC within the A horizons. Therefore, SOC content should be taken into consideration when assessing the impact of forest management or any other forest conservation policy.

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### INFLUENCE FACTORS IN ROOTING OF CUTTINGS OF Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. et Cham

#### FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. et Cham

J. Daniel Castillo-Flores; Miguel A. López-López; Javier López-Upton; Víctor M. Cetina-Alcalá; Tomás Hernández-Tejeda

Keywords: Vegetative propagation, origin, auxins, age of cutting, indol-3-butyric acid, naphthaleneacetic acid.

10.5154/r.rchscfa.2011.06.038